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Solar Physics

, Volume 291, Issue 8, pp 2281–2328 | Cite as

Spectroscopy at the Solar Limb: II. Are Spicules Heated to Coronal Temperatures?

  • C. BeckEmail author
  • R. Rezaei
  • K. G. Puschmann
  • D. Fabbian
Article

Abstract

Spicules of the so-called type II were suggested to be relevant for coronal heating because of their ubiquity on the solar surface and their eventual extension into the corona. We investigate whether solar spicules are heated to transition-region or coronal temperatures and reach coronal heights (\({\gg}\,6~\mbox{Mm}\)) using multiwavelength observations of limb spicules in different chromospheric spectral lines (Ca ii H, H\(\upepsilon\), H\(\upalpha\), Ca ii IR at 854.2 nm, He i at 1083 nm) taken with slit spectrographs and imaging spectrometers. We determine the line width of spectrally resolved line profiles in individual spicules and throughout the field of view, and estimate the maximal height that different types of off-limb features reach. We derive estimates of the kinetic temperature and the non-thermal velocity from the line width of spectral lines from different chemical elements. We find that most regular, i.e. thin and elongated, spicules reach a height of at most about 6 Mm above the solar limb. The majority of features found at larger heights are irregularly shaped with a significantly larger lateral extension, of up to a few Mm, than spicules. Both individual and average line profiles in all spectral lines show a decrease in their line width with height above the limb with very few exceptions. The kinetic temperature and the non-thermal velocity decrease with height above the limb. We find no indications that the spicules in our data reach coronal heights or transition-region or coronal temperatures.

Keywords

Sun: chromosphere Techniques: spectroscopic Line: profiles 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The VTT is operated by the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS; Freiburg, Germany) at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC; La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain). POLIS was a joint development of the High Altitude Observatory (HAO; Boulder, USA) and the KIS. Hinode is a Japanese mission developed and launched by ISAS/JAXA, with NAOJ as domestic partner and NASA and STFC (UK) as international partners. It is operated by these agencies in cooperation with ESA and NSC (Norway). SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. HMI data are courtesy of NASA/SDO and the HMI science team. R. Rezaei acknowledges financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under grant RE 3282/1-1. D. Fabbian acknowledges financial support by the Spanish Ministries of Research and Innovation and of Economy through projects AYA2011-24808 and CSD2007-00050.

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Beck
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Rezaei
    • 2
  • K. G. Puschmann
    • 3
  • D. Fabbian
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.National Solar Observatory (NSO)SunspotUSA
  2. 2.Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS)FreiburgGermany
  3. 3.DarmstadtGermany
  4. 4.Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC)La LagunaSpain
  5. 5.Departamento de AstrofísicaUniversidad de La Laguna (ULL)La LagunaSpain
  6. 6.Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensytemforschung (MPS)GöttingenGermany

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