Advertisement

Solar Physics

, Volume 291, Issue 7, pp 2117–2134 | Cite as

North/South Hemispheric Periodicities in the \({>}\,25\mbox{ MeV}\) Solar Proton Event Rate During the Rising and Peak Phases of Solar Cycle 24

  • I. G. RichardsonEmail author
  • T. T. von Rosenvinge
  • H. V. Cane
Article

Abstract

We present evidence that \(>25~\mbox{MeV}\) solar proton events show a clustering in time at intervals of about six months that persisted during the rising and peak phases of Solar Cycle 24. This phenomenon is most clearly demonstrated by considering events originating in the northern or southern solar hemispheres separately. We examine how these variations in the solar energetic particle (SEP) event rate are related to other phenomena, such as hemispheric sunspot numbers and areas, rates of coronal mass ejections, and the mean solar magnetic field. Most obviously, the SEP event rate closely follows the sunspot number and area in the same hemisphere. The variations of about six months are associated with features in many of the other parameters we examine, indicating that they are just one signature of the episodic development of Cycle 24. They may be related to periodicities of about 150 days reported in various solar and interplanetary phenomena during previous solar cycles. The clear presence of periodicities of about six months in Cycle 24 that evolve independently in each hemisphere contradicts a scenario suggested by McIntosh et al. (Nature Com. 6, 6491, 2015) for the variational timescales of solar magnetism.

Keywords

Solar energetic particles Solar cycle Sunspot area 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the many researchers who have compiled the various data sets used in this article. The STEREO High Energy Telescope data are available at http://www.srl.caltech.edu/STEREO/Public/HET_public.html . The ERNE data are from the Space Research Laboratory at the University of Turku ( http://www.srl.utu.fi/erne_data/ ). This work was supported by the NASA Living With a Star science program as part of the activities of the Focused Science Team “Physics-based methods to predict connectivity of SEP sources to points in the inner heliosphere, tested by location, timing, and longitudinal separation of SEPs”.

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. Bai, T.: 1987, Astrophys. J. 314, 795.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bai, T.: 1988, Astrophys. J. 328, 860.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bai, T., Cliver, E.W.: 1990, Astrophys. J. 363, 299.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bai, T., Sturrock, P.A.: 1987, Nature 327, 601.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ballester, J.L., Oliver, R., Carbonell, M.: 2002, Astrophys. J. 566, 505.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ballester, J.L., Oliver, R., Carbonell, M.: 2004, Astrophys. J. Lett. 615, L173.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balmaceda, L.A., Solanki, S.K., Krivova, N.A., Foster, S.: 2009, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A07104.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cane, H.V., Richardson, I.G., von Rosenvinge, T.T.: 1998, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4437.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cane, H.V., Richardson, I.G., Wibberenz, G.: 2001 In: Proc. 27th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 9, 3826. Google Scholar
  10. Cane, H.V., Wibberenz, G., Richardson, I.G., von Rosenvinge, T.T.: 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 565.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, H., Zhang, J., Ma, S., Yang, S., Li, L., Huang, X., Xiao, J.: 2015, Astrophys. J. Lett. 808, L24.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chowdhury, P., Choudhary, D.P., Gosain, S., Moon, Y.-J.: 2015, Astrophys. Space Sci. 356, 7.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cliver, E.W., Richardson, I.G., Ling, A.G.: 2013, Space Sci. Rev. 176, 3.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, C.M.S., Mason, G.M., Mewaldt, R.A., Wiedenbeck, M.E.: 2014, Astrophys. J. 793, 35.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dalla, S., Balogh, A., Heber, B., Lopate, C.: 2001, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 5721.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dresing, N., Gómez-Herrero, R., Klassen, A., Heber, B., Kartavykh, Y., Dröge, W.: 2012, Solar Phys. 281, 281.  DOI. ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Gnevyshev, M.N.: 1967, Solar Phys. 1, 107.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gnevyshev, M.N.: 1977, Solar Phys. 51, 175.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gómez-Herrero, R., Dresing, N., Klassen, A., Heber, B., Lario, D., Agueda, N., et al.: 2015, Astrophys. J. 799, 55.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gonzalez, A.L.C., Gonzalez, W.D., Dutra, S.L.G., Tsurutani, B.T.: 1993, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 9215.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hill, M.E., Hamilton, D.C., Krimigis, S.M.: 2001, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8315.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jokipii, J.R., Wibberenz, G.: 1998, Space Sci. Rev. 83, 365.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaiser, M.L., Kucera, T.A., Davila, J.M., St. Cyr, O.C., Guhathakurta, M., Christian, E.: 2008, Space Sci. Rev. 136, 5.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lara, A., Borgazzi, A., Mendes, O. Jr., Rosa, R.R., Domingues, M.O.: 2008, Solar Phys. 248, 155.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lario, D., Aran, A., Gómez-Herrero, R., Dresing, N., Heber, B., Ho, G.C., Decker, R.B., Roelof, E.C.: 2013, Astrophys. J. 767, 41.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lario, D., Raouafi, N.E., Kwon, R.-Y., Zhang, J., Gómez-Herrero, R., Dresing, N., Riley, P.: 2014, Astrophys. J. 797, 8.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lario, D., Kwon, R.-Y., Vourlidas, A., Raouafi, N.E., Haggerty, D.K., Ho, G.C., Anderson, B.J., Papaioannou, A., Gómez-Herrero, R., Dresing, N., Riley, P.: 2016, Astrophys. J. 819, 72.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lave, K.A., Wiedenbeck, M.E., Binns, W.R., Christian, E.R., Cummings, A.C., Davis, A.J., et al.: 2013, Astrophys. J. 770, 117.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lean, J.L.: 1990, Astrophys. J. 363, 718.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lobzin, V.V., Cairns, I.H., Robinson, P.A.: 2012, Astrophys. J. Lett. 754, L28.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lomb, N.R.: 1976, Astrophys. Space Sci. 39, 447.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lou, Y.-Q.: 2000, Astrophys. J. 540, 1102.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lou, Y.-Q., Wang, Y.-M., Fan, Z., Wang, S., Wang, J.X.: 2003, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 345(3), 809.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Malandraki, O.E., Marsden, R.G., Lario, D., Tranquille, C., Heber, B., Mewaldt, R.A., et al.: 2009, Astrophys. J. 704, 469.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McDonald, F.B.: 1998, Space Sci. Rev. 83, 33.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McIntosh, S.W., Leamon, R.J., Krista, L.D., Title, A.M., Hudson, H.S., Riley, P., et al.: 2015, Nat. Commun. 6, 6491.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mewaldt, R.A., Cohen, C.M.S., Cummings, A.C., Davis, A.J., Labrador, A.W., Leske, R.A., et al.: 2008, In: Caballero, R., D’Olivo, J.C., Medina-Tanco, G., Nellen, L., Sánchez, F.A., Valdés-Galicia, J.F. (eds.) Proc. 30th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 1, 107. Google Scholar
  38. Mewaldt, R.A., Davis, A.J., Lave, K.A., Leske, R.A., Stone, E.C., Wiedenbeck, M.E., et al.: 2010, Astrophys. J. Lett. 723, L1.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Newell, P.T., Sotirelis, T., Liou, K., Meng, C.-I., Rich, F.J.: 2007, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A01206.  DOI. ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Norton, A.A., Gallagher, J.G.: 2010, Solar Phys. 261, 193.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Oliver, R., Ballester, J.L., Baudin, F.: 1998, Nature 394, 552.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Owens, M.J., Crooker, N.U.: 2006, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10104.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Owens, M.J., Crooker, N.U., Schwadron, N.A., Horbury, T.S., Yashiro, S., Xie, H., et al.: 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L20108.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Papaioannou, A., Malandraki, O.E., Dresing, N., Heber, B., Klein, K.-L., Vainio, R., et al.: 2014, Astron. Astrophys. 569, A96.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2005, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L02104.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2010, Solar Phys. 264, 189.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2012, J. Space Weather Space Clim. 2, A02-01.  DOI. Google Scholar
  48. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V., St. Cyr, O.C.: 1999 In: Solar Wind Nine, AIP Conf. Proc. 471, 677.  DOI. Google Scholar
  49. Richardson, I.G., von Rosenvinge, T.T., Cane, H.V.: 2015, Solar Phys. 290, 1741.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Richardson, I.G., von Rosenvinge, T.T., Cane, H.V., Christian, E.R., Cohen, C.M.S., Labrador, A.W., et al.: 2014, Solar Phys. 289, 3059.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rieger, E., Share, G.H., Forrest, D.J., Kanbach, G., Reppin, C., Chupp, E.L.: 1984, Nature 312, 623.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rouillard, A.P., Sheeley, N.R., Tylka, A., Vourlidas, A., Ng, C.K., Rakowski, C., et al.: 2011, Astrophys. J. 752, 44.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Russell, C.T., Mewaldt, R.A., Luhmann, J.G., Mason, G.M., von Rosenvinge, T.T., Cohen, C.M.S., et al.: 2013, Astrophys. J. 770, 38.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Scargle, J.D.: 1982, Astrophys. J. 253, 835.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Scherrer, P.H., Wilcox, J.M., Svalgaard, L., Duvall, T.L. Jr., Dittmer, P.H., Gustafson, E.K.: 1977, Solar Phys. 54, 353.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sheeley, N.R., Wang, Y.-M.: 2015, Astrophys. J. 809, 113.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Storini, M., Bazilevskaya, G.A., Flückiger, E.O., Krainev, M.B., Makhmutov, V.S., Sladkova, A.I.: 2003, Adv. Space Res. 31(4), 895.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sun, X., Bobra, M.G., Hoeksema, J.T., Liu, Y., Li, Y., Shen, C., et al.: 2015, Astrophys. J. Lett. 804, L28.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Torsti, J., Valtonen, E., Lumme, M., Peltonen, P., Eronen, T., Louhola, M., et al.: 1995, Solar Phys. 162, 505.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. von Rosenvinge, T.T., Reames, D.V., Baker, R., Hawk, J., Nolan, J.T., Ryan, L., et al.: 2008, Space Sci. Rev. 136, 391.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. von Rosenvinge, T.T., Richardson, I.G., Reames, D.V., Cohen, C.M.S., Cummings, A.C., Leske, R.A., et al.: 2009, Solar Phys. 256, 443.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. von Rosenvinge, T.T., Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V., Christian, E.R., Cohen, C.M.S., Cummings, A.C., et al.: 2015, In: Proc. 34th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., Proc. of Science, paper 104. Google Scholar
  63. Wang, Y.-M., Jr. Sheeley, N.R.: 2015, Astrophys. J. Lett. 809, L24.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wibberenz, G., Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2002, J. Geophys. Res. 107(A11), 1353.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wiedenbeck, M.E., Mason, G.M., Cohen, C.M.S., Nitta, N.V., Gómez-Herrero, R., Haggerty, D.K.: 2013, Astrophys. J. 762, 54.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wolff, C.L.: 1992, Solar Phys. 142, 187.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zhang, J., Richardson, I.G., Webb, D.F., Gopalswamy, N., Huttunen, E., Kasper, J.C., et al.: 2007, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A10102.  DOI. ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CRESST and Department of AstronomyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.Code 661NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mathematics and PhysicsUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations