Solar Physics

, Volume 291, Issue 2, pp 581–602 | Cite as

A Study of Heliospheric Modulation and Periodicities of Galactic Cosmic Rays During Cycle 24

  • Partha ChowdhuryEmail author
  • K. Kudela
  • Y.-J. Moon


Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are energetic, charged particles coming from outside the solar system. These particles encounter an outward-moving turbulent solar wind with cyclic magnetic-field fluctuations when entering the heliosphere. This causes convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. The GCR counts detected by the ground-based neutron-monitor stations show intensity changes with a fluctuation of ∼ 11 years and are anti-correlated with the sunspot numbers with some time lags. GCRs experience various types of modulation from different solar activity features and are important components of space weather. The previous solar cycle, Cycle 23, has shown anomalous behavior with a prolonged deep minimum, which was characterized by a record-setting high Galactic cosmic-ray flux observed at Earth. Solar Cycle 24 started much later than expected and progressed sluggishly toward its maxima. In this paper, we study the heliospheric modulation and intermediate-term periodicities of GCRs during the ascending phase of Cycle 24. We utilize simultaneous solar, interplanetary plasma, magnetic field, and geomagnetic activity data including the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet, and we study their relation with GCRs. The wavelet power spectrum of GCRs exhibits the presence of a variety of prominent short- and mid-term periodicities including the well-known Rieger and quasi-biennial periodicities. Possible explanations of the observed results are discussed in the light of numerical models.


Cosmic Rays, interplanetary medium Cosmic Ray Modulation Sun: activity – solar cycles Heliospheric current sheet, Periodicity 



We would like to thank the referee for constructive and valuable comments that improved the manuscript considerably. This work was supported by the BK21 plus program through the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education of Korea. We thank Dr. Ilya Usoskin and the Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory for the online availability of the Oulu neutron-monitor data. We also thank the Royal Observatory of Belgium for the sunspot number data, the SOHO LASCO team members for the CME data base and the Slovak Central Observatory in Hurbanovo for the online availability of the MCI data. The availability of geomagnetic, interplanetary plasma and magnetic field data through the NASA/GSFC OMNI Web interface and the HCS inclination data (courtesy J.T. Hoeksema) is also acknowledged. KK wishes to acknowledge VEGA agency 2/0040/13 and 2/0026/16 for support.


  1. Ahluwalia, H.S., Lopate, C., Ygbuhay, R.C., Duldig, M.L.: 2010, Adv. Space Res. 46(7), 934.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Alania, M.V., Modzelewska, R., Wawrzynczak, A.: 2014, J. Geophys. Res. 119(6), 4164.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antalová, A., Kudela, K., Rybák, J.: 2001, Space Sci. Rev. 97(1/4), 355.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Aslam, O.P.M., Badruddin: 2012, Solar Phys. 279(1), 269.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Aslam, O.P.M., Badruddin: 2015, Solar Phys.  DOI. Google Scholar
  6. Badruddin, Singh, M., Singh, Y.P.: 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 466(2), 697. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Balogh, A., Erdős, G.: 2013, Space Sci. Rev. 176(1–4), 177. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Bazilevskaya, G.A., Krainev, M.B., Svirzhevskaya, A.K., Svirzhevsky, N.S.: 2013, Cosm. Res. 51(1), 29. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Bazilevskaya, B., Broomhall, A.-M., Elsworth, Y., Nakariakov, V.M.: 2014a, Space Sci. Rev. 186, 359. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Bazilevskaya, G.A., Cliver, E.W., Kovaltsov, G.A., Ling, A.G., Shea, M.A., Smart, D.F., Usoskin, I.G.: 2014b, Space Sci. Rev. 186(1–4), 409. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Belov, A.V.: 2000, Space Sci. Rev. 93, 79. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Burlaga, L.F., McDonald, F.B., Ness, N.F.: 1993, J. Geophys. Res. 98(A1), 1.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Caballero, R., Valdés-Galicia, J.F.: 2001, Adv. Space Res. 27(3), 583. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Cane, H.V., Wibberenz, G., Richardson, I.G., von Rosenvinge, T.T.: 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26(5), 565. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Chowdhury, P., Dwivedi, B.N., Ray, P.C.: 2011, New Astron. 16(7), 430. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Chowdhury, P., Jain, R., Awasthi, A.K.: 2013, Astrophys. J. 778(1), 28. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Chowdhury, P., Khan, M., Ray, P.C.: 2010a, Astrophys. Space Sci. 326(2), 191. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Chowdhury, P., Khan, M., Ray, P.C.: 2010b, Planet. Space Sci. 58(7–8), 1045. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Chowdhury, P., Kudela, K., Dwivedi, B.N.: 2013, Solar Phys. 286(2), 577.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Chowdhury, P., Choudhary, D.P., Gosain, S., Moon, Y.-J.: 2015, Astrophys. Space Sci. 356(1), 7. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Cliver, E.W., Ling, A.G.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 556(1), 432. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Cliver, E.W., Richardson, I.G., Ling, A.G.: 2013, Space Sci. Rev. 176(1–4), 3. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. De Moortel, I., Munday, S.A., Hood, A.W.: 2004, Solar Phys. 222(2), 203. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Dikpati, M., de Toma, G., Gilman, P.A., Arge, C.N., White Oran, R.: 2004, Astrophys. J. 601(2), 1136. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Dorman, I.V., Dorman, L.I.: 1967, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 29(4), 429. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Gil, A., Alania, M.V.: 2010, Adv. Space Res. 45(3), 429. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Gil, A., Alania, M.V.: 2012, Solar Phys. 278(2), 447. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Gil, A., Alania, M.V.: 2013, Adv. Space Res. 52(5), 951. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Gleeson, L.J., Axford, W.I.: 1968, Astrophys. J. 154, 1011. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Heber, B.: 2013, Space Sci. Rev. 176(1–4), 265. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Heber, B., Kopp, A., Gieseler, J., Müller-Mellin, R., Fichtner, H., Scherer, K., Potgieter, M.S., Ferreira, S.E.S.: 2009, Astrophys. J. 699(2), 1956. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Howe, R., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Hill, F., Komm, R.W., Larsen, R.M., Schou, J., Thompson, M.J., Toomre, J.: 2000, Science 287(5462), 2456. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Jokipii, J.R.: 1971, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 9, 27.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Jokipii, J.R., Thomas, B.: 1981, Astrophys. J. 243, 1115. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Kane, R.P.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res.  DOI. Google Scholar
  36. Kane, R.P.: 2011, Solar Phys. 269(2), 451. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Kane, R.P.: 2014, Solar Phys. 289(7), 2727. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Kato, C., Munakata, K., Yasue, S., Inoue, K., McDonald, F.B.: 2003, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A10), 1367. SSH 4-1.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kóta, J.: 2013, Space Sci. Rev. 176(1–4), 391. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Krainev, M.B., Storini, M., Bazilevskaya, G.A., Fluckiger, E.O., Makhmutov, V.S., Sladkova, A.I., Starodubtsev, S.A.: 1999, In: Proc. 26th ICRC, Salt Lake City, US, 7, 155. Google Scholar
  41. Kudela, K., Ananth, A.G., Venkatesan, D.: 1991, J. Geophys. Res. 96, 15871.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Kudela, K., Slivka, M., Stehlik, M., Geranios, A.: 1993, Astrophys. Space Sci. 199(1), 125.  DOI. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Kudela, K., Mavromichalaki, H., Papaioannou, A., Gerontidou, M.: 2010, Solar Phys. 266(1), 173. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Laurenza, M., Vecchio, A., Storini, M., Carbone, V.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 749(2), 167. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Leske, R.A., Cummings, A.C., Mewaldt, R.A., Stone, E.C.: 2013, Space Sci. Rev. 176(1–4), 253. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Lockwood, M.: 2001, J. Geophys. Res. 106(A8), 16021. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Mavromichalaki, H., Belehaki, A., Rafios, X.: 1998, Astron. Astrophys. 330, 764. ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Mavromichalaki, H., Paouris, E., Karalidi, T.: 2007, Solar Phys. 245(2), 369. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Mavromichalaki, H., Preka-Papadema, P., Liritzis, I., Petropoulos, B., Kurt, V.: 2003, New Astron. 8(8), 777. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. McComas, D.J., Ebert, R.W., Elliott, H.A., Goldstein, B.E., Gosling, J.T., Schwadron, N.A., Skoug, R.M.: 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(18), L18103. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. McDonald, F.B., Webber, W.R., Reames, D.V.: 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), L1810. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mewaldt, R.A., Davis, A.J., Lave, K.A., Leske, R.A., Stone, E.C., et al.: 2010, Astrophys. J. Lett. 723(1), L1. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Minarovjech, M., Kudela, K.: 2004, Solar Phys. 224(1–2), 285. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Modzelewska, R., Alania, M.V.: 2013, Solar Phys. 286(2), 593. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Moraal, H., Stoker, P.H.: 2010, J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 115(A12), A12109. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Nagashima, K., Morishita, I.: 1980, Planet. Space Sci. 28, 177. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Obridko, V.N., Shelting, B.D.: 2007, Adv. Space Res. 40(7), 1006. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Owens, M.J., Forsyth, R.J.: 2013, Living Rev. Solar Phys. 10, 5. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Owens, M.J., Usoskin, I., Lockwood, M.: 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett. 39(19), L19102. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Pacini, A.A., Usoskin, I.G.: 2015, Solar Phys. 290(3), 943. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Paouris, E., Mavromichalaki, H., Belov, A., Gushchina, R., Yanke, V.: 2012, Solar Phys. 280(1), 255. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Parker, E.N.: 1965, Planet. Space Sci. 13(1), 9. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. Pogorelov, N.V., Suess, S.T., Borovikov, S.N., Ebert, R.W., McComas, D.J., Zank, G.P.: 2013, Astrophys. J. 772(1), 17, 2. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Potgieter, M.: 2013, Living Rev. Solar Phys. 10, 3. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Potgieter, M.S., Burger, R.A., Ferreira, S.E.S.: 2001, Space Sci. Rev. 97(1/4), 295. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. Potgieter, M.S., Vos, E.E., Boezio, M., De Simone, N., Di Felice, V., Formato, V.: 2014, Solar Phys. 289(1), 391. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Richardson, I.G.: 2013, J. Space Weather Space Clim. 3, A08. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rybanský, M.: 1975, Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechoslov. 28, 367. ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Sabbah, I., Kudela, K.: 2011, J. Geophys. Res. 116(A4), A04103. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Sabbah, I., Rybanský, M.: 2006, J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys. 111(A1), A01105. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Singh, M., Badruddin, Ananth, A.G.: 2005, Proc. 29th ICRC Pune. In: India, E., Sripathi Acharya, B., Gupta, S., Jagadeesan, P., Jain, A., Karthikeyan, S., Morris, S., Suresh, T. (eds.): 2, Tata Inst. Fund. Res., Mumbai, 139. Google Scholar
  72. Singh, Y.P., Gautam, S., Badruddin: 2012, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 89, 48. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Smith, E.J., Balogh, A.: 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(22), L22103. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Stone, E.C., Cummings, A.C., McDonald, F.B., Heikkila, B.C., Lal, N., Ebber, W.R.: 2013, Science 341(6142), 150. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Storini, M., Laurenza, M., Fujii, Z.: 2003, In: Proc. 28th ICRC, Tsukuba, Japan, 4049. Google Scholar
  76. Torrence, C., Compo, G.P.: 1998, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79(1), 61. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Usoskin, I.G., Kananen, H., Mursula, K., Tanskanen, P., Kovaltsov, G.A.: 1998, J. Geophys. Res. 103(A5), 9567. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Usoskin, I.G., Mursula, K., Kananen, H., Kovaltsov, G.A.: 2001, Adv. Space Res. 27(3), 571. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Vecchio, A., Laurenza, M., Carbone, V., Storini, M.: 2010, Astrophys. J. Lett. 709(1), L1. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Vecchio, A., Laurenza, M., Meduri, D., Carbone, V., Storini, M.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 749(1), 27. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhao, L.-L., Qin, G., Zhang, M., Heber, B.: 2014, J. Geophys. Res. 119(3), 1493. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Space ResearchKyung Hee UniversityYonginKorea
  2. 2.Institute of Experimental PhysicsSlovak Academy of SciencesKosiceSlovakia

Personalised recommendations