Solar Physics

, Volume 290, Issue 10, pp 2719–2732 | Cite as

Sunspots During the Maunder Minimum from Machina Coelestis by Hevelius

  • V. M. S. Carrasco
  • J. Villalba Álvarez
  • J. M. VaqueroEmail author


We revisited the sunspot observations published by Johannes Hevelius in his book Machina Coelestis (1679) corresponding to the period of 1653 – 1675 (just in the middle of the Maunder Minimum). We show detailed translations of the original Latin texts describing the sunspot records and provide the general context of these sunspot observations. From this source, we present an estimate of the annual values of the group sunspot number based only on the records that explicitly inform us of the presence or absence of sunspots. Although we obtain very low values of the group sunspot number, in accordance with a grand minimum of solar activity, these values are significantly higher in general than the values provided by Hoyt and Schatten (Solar Phys. 179, 189, 1998) for the same period.


Group sunspot number Maunder Minimum Solar cycle Sunspots 



Support from the Junta de Extremadura (Research Group Grant No. GR10131), and from the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad of the Spanish Government (AYA2011-25945 and AYA2014-57556-P) is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. M. S. Carrasco
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. Villalba Álvarez
    • 3
  • J. M. Vaquero
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Centro de Geofísica de ÉvoraUniversidade de ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal
  2. 2.Departamento de FísicaUniversidad de ExtremaduraBadajozSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Ciencias de la AntigüedadUniversidad de ExtremaduraCáceresSpain
  4. 4.Departamento de FísicaUniversidad de ExtremaduraMéridaSpain

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