Solar Physics

, Volume 290, Issue 3, pp 659–671 | Cite as

Application of Mutual Information Methods in Time–Distance Helioseismology

  • Dustin KeysEmail author
  • Shukur Kholikov
  • Alexei A. Pevtsov


We apply a new technique, the mutual information (MI) from information theory, to time–distance helioseismology, and demonstrate that it can successfully reproduce several classic results based on the widely used cross-covariance method. MI quantifies the deviation of two random variables from complete independence and represents a more general method for detecting dependencies in time series than the cross-covariance function, which only detects linear relationships. We briefly describe the MI-based technique and discuss the results of applying MI to derive the solar differential profile, a travel-time deviation map for a sunspot, and a time–distance diagram from quiet-Sun measurements.


Helioseismology, observations Helioseismology, theory Velocity fields, interior 



NSO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA, Inc.), under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The SOHO/MDI data used here are provided by the SOHO/MDI consortium. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. The authors thank the anonymous referee for his/her suggestions that allowed the authors to improve the article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dustin Keys
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Shukur Kholikov
    • 2
  • Alexei A. Pevtsov
    • 3
  1. 1.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.National Solar ObservatoryTucsonUSA
  3. 3.National Solar ObservatorySunspotUSA

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