Solar Physics

, Volume 289, Issue 12, pp 4589–4606 | Cite as

The Relation Between Large-Scale Coronal Propagating Fronts and Type II Radio Bursts

  • Nariaki V. NittaEmail author
  • Wei Liu
  • Nat Gopalswamy
  • Seiji Yashiro


Large-scale, wave-like disturbances in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and type II radio bursts are often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Both phenomena may signify shock waves driven by CMEs. Taking EUV full-disk images at an unprecedented cadence, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory has observed the so-called EIT waves or large-scale coronal propagating fronts (LCPFs) from their early evolution, which coincides with the period when most metric type II bursts occur. This article discusses the relation of LCPFs as captured by AIA with metric type II bursts. We show examples of type II bursts without a clear LCPF and fast LCPFs without a type II burst. Part of the disconnect between the two phenomena may be due to the difficulty in identifying them objectively. Furthermore, it is possible that the individual LCPFs and type II bursts may reflect different physical processes and external factors. In particular, the type II bursts that start at low frequencies and high altitudes tend to accompany an extended arc-shaped feature, which probably represents the 3D structure of the CME and the shock wave around it, and not just its near-surface track, which has usually been identified with EIT waves. This feature expands and propagates toward and beyond the limb. These events may be characterized by stretching of field lines in the radial direction and may be distinct from other LCPFs, which may be explained in terms of sudden lateral expansion of the coronal volume. Neither LCPFs nor type II bursts by themselves serve as necessary conditions for coronal shock waves, but these phenomena may provide useful information on the early evolution of the shock waves in 3D when both are clearly identified in eruptive events.


Shock waves Coronal mass ejections Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet emission Radio emission 



This work has been supported by the NSF grant AGS-1259549, NASA AIA contract NNG04EA00C and the NASA STEREO mission under NRL Contract No. N00173-02-C-2035. NASA grant NNX11AO68G supported the work of WL. The work of NG and SY was supported by the NASA LWS TR&T program.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nariaki V. Nitta
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wei Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nat Gopalswamy
    • 3
  • Seiji Yashiro
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department A021SLockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics LaboratoryPalo AltoUSA
  2. 2.W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics LaboratoryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  3. 3.Code 671NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  4. 4.The Catholic University of AmericaWashingtonUSA

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