Solar Physics

, Volume 289, Issue 12, pp 4701–4709 | Cite as

Cosmogenic Isotope Variability During the Maunder Minimum: Normal 11-year Cycles Are Expected

  • S. V. Poluianov
  • I. G. Usoskin
  • G. A. Kovaltsov


The amplitude of the 11-year cycle measured in the cosmogenic isotope 10Be during the Maunder Minimum is comparable to that during the recent epoch of high solar activity. Because of the virtual absence of the cyclic variability of sunspot activity during the Maunder Minimum this seemingly contradicts an intuitive expectation that lower activity would result in smaller solar-cycle variations in cosmogenic radio-isotope data, or in none, leading to confusing and misleading conclusions. It is shown here that large 11-year solar cycles in cosmogenic data observed during periods of suppressed sunspot activity do not necessarily imply strong heliospheric fields. Normal-amplitude cycles in the cosmogenic radio-isotopes observed during the Maunder Minimum are consistent with theoretical expectations because of the nonlinear relation between solar activity and isotope production. Thus, cosmogenic-isotope data provide a good tool to study solar-cycle variability even during grand minima of solar activity.


Cosmic rays Maunder minimum Solar cycle 



G.K. acknowledges partial support from the Program No. 22 of Presidium RAS. Support by the Academy of Finland to the ReSoLVE Center of Excellence (project no. 272157) is acknowledged.


  1. Bard, E., Raisbeck, G.M., Yiou, F., Jouzel, J.: 1997, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 150, 453.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beer, J., McCracken, K., von Steiger, R.: 2012, Cosmogenic Radionuclides: Theory and Applications in the Terrestrial and Space Environments, Springer, Berlin. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beer, J., Tobias, S., Weiss, N.: 1998, Solar Phys. 181, 237.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beer, J., Blinov, A., Bonani, G., Hofmann, H.J., Finkel, R.C.: 1990, Nature 347, 164.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berggren, A.-M., Beer, J., Possnert, G., Aldahan, A., Kubik, P., Christl, M., Johnsen, S.J., Abreu, J., Vinther, B.M.: 2009, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L11801. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castagnoli, G., Lal, D.: 1980, Radiocarbon 22, 133. Google Scholar
  7. Cliver, E.W., Boriakoff, V., Bounar, K.H.: 1998, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 897.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Damon, P.E., Eastoe, C.J., Mikheeva, I.B.: 1999, Radiocarbon 41(1), 47. Google Scholar
  9. Eddy, J.A.: 1976, Science 192, 1189. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fligge, M., Solanki, S.K., Beer, J.: 1999, Astron. Astrophys. 346, 313. ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Gibson, S.E., de Toma, G., Emery, B., Riley, P., Zhao, L., Elsworth, Y., Leamon, R.J., Lei, J., McIntosh, S., Mewaldt, R.A., Thompson, B.J., Webb, D.: 2011, Solar Phys. 274, 5.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hathaway, D.H.: 2010, Living Rev. Solar Phys. 7, 1.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heikkilä, U., Beer, J., Feichter, J.: 2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 515. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heikkilä, U., Beer, J., Abreu, J.A., Steinhilber, F.: 2013, Space Sci. Rev. 176, 321.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Herbst, K., Kopp, A., Heber, B., Steinhilber, F., Fichtner, H., Scherer, K., Matthiä, D.: 2010, J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00I20.  DOI. ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoyt, D.V., Schatten, K.: 1996, Solar Phys. 165, 181.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoyt, D.V., Schatten, K.: 1998, Solar Phys. 179, 189.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kocharov, G.E., Ostryakov, V.M., Peristykh, A.N., Vasil’ev, V.A.: 1995, Solar Phys. 159, 381.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kovaltsov, G.A., Mishev, A., Usoskin, I.G.: 2012, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 337, 114. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kovaltsov, G.A., Usoskin, I.G.: 2010, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 291, 182.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lal, D.: 1988, Solar-terrestrial relationships and the Earth environment in the last millennia. In: Cini Castagnoli, G. (ed.) Proceedings of the International School of Physics “Enrico Fermi”, Course XCV, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 216. Google Scholar
  22. Licht, A., Hulot, G., Gallet, Y., Thébault, E.: 2013, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 224, 38.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Masarik, J., Beer, J.: 1999, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 12099. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Masarik, J., Beer, J.: 2009, J. Geophys. Res. 114, D11103.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McCracken, K.G.: 2007, J. Geophys. Res. 112(A11), A09106.  DOI. ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. McCracken, K.G.: 2004, J. Geophys. Res. 109(A18).  DOI.
  27. McCracken, K.G., Beer, J.: 2014, J. Geophys. Res. 119, 2379.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McCracken, K.G., McDonald, F.B., Beer, J., Raisbeck, G., Yiou, F.: 2004, J. Geophys. Res. 109(A18), 12103.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miyahara, H., Masuda, K., Muraki, Y., Furuzawa, H., Menjo, H., Nakamura, T.: 2004, Solar Phys. 224, 317.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Muscheler, R., Joos, F., Beer, J., Müller, S.A., Vonmoos, M., Snowball, I.: 2007, Quat. Sci. Rev. 26, 82.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. O’Brien, K.: 1979, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 423. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Owens, M.J., Usoskin, I., Lockwood, M.: 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L19102.  DOI. ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Peristykh, A.N., Damon, P.E.: 1998, Solar Phys. 177, 343.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ribes, J.C., Nesme-Ribes, E.: 1993, Astron. Astrophys. 276, 549. ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Roth, R., Joos, F.: 2013, Clim. Past 9, 1879.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Solanki, S.K., Schüssler, M., Fligge, M.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 383, 706.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Solanki, S.K., Usoskin, I.G., Kromer, B., Schüssler, M., Beer, J.: 2004, Nature 431, 1084.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Steinhilber, F., Abreu, J.A., Beer, J., Brunner, I., Christl, M., Fischer, H., Heikkilae, U., Kubik, P.W., Mann, M., McCracken, K.G., Miller, H., Miyahara, H., Oerter, H., Wilhelms, F.: 2012, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109(16), 5967.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stuiver, M., Braziunas, T.F.: 1993, Holocene 3, 289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J., Braziunas, T.F.: 1998, Radiocarbon 40, 1127. Google Scholar
  41. Svalgaard, L.: 2013, J. Space Weather Space Clim. 3, A24.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Usoskin, I.G.: 2013, Living Rev. Solar Phys. 10, 1.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Usoskin, I.G., Bazilevskaya, G.A., Kovaltsov, G.A.: 2011, J. Geophys. Res. 116, A02104.  DOI. ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Usoskin, I.G., Mursula, K., Kovaltsov, G.A.: 2001, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 16039.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Usoskin, I.G., Solanki, S.K., Kovaltsov, G.A.: 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 471, 301.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Usoskin, I.G., Alanko-Huotari, K., Kovaltsov, G.A., Mursula, K.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res. 110.  DOI.
  47. Vainio, R., Desorgher, L., Heynderickx, D., Storini, M., Flückiger, E., Horne, R.B., Kovaltsov, G.A., Kudela, K., Laurenza, M., McKenna-Lawlor, S., Rothkaehl, H., Usoskin, I.G.: 2009, Space Sci. Rev. 147, 187.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vonmoos, M., Beer, J., Muscheler, R.: 2006, J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), A10105.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang, Y., Sheeley, N. Jr.: 2013, Astrophys. J. 764(1), 90. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Webber, W.R., Higbie, P.R.: 2003, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1355.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. V. Poluianov
    • 1
  • I. G. Usoskin
    • 1
    • 3
  • G. A. Kovaltsov
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  2. 2.Ioffe Physical-Technical InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  3. 3.Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Oulu Unit)University of OuluOuluFinland

Personalised recommendations