Galactic Cosmic Ray Modulation near the Heliospheric Current Sheet
Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are modulated by the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) both over decadal time scales (due to long-term, global HMF variations), and over time scales of a few hours (associated with solar wind structures such as coronal mass ejections or the heliospheric current sheet, HCS). Due to the close association between the HCS, the streamer belt, and the band of slow solar wind, HCS crossings are often associated with corotating interaction regions where fast solar wind catches up and compresses slow solar wind ahead of it. However, not all HCS crossings are associated with strong compressions. In this study we categorize HCS crossings in two ways: Firstly, using the change in magnetic polarity, as either away-to-toward (AT) or toward-to-away (TA) magnetic field directions relative to the Sun and, secondly, using the strength of the associated solar wind compression, determined from the observed plasma density enhancement. For each category, we use superposed epoch analyses to show differences in both solar wind parameters and GCR flux inferred from neutron monitors. For strong-compression HCS crossings, we observe a peak in neutron counts preceding the HCS crossing, followed by a large drop after the crossing, attributable to the so-called ‘snow-plough’ effect. For weak-compression HCS crossings, where magnetic field polarity effects are more readily observable, we instead observe that the neutron counts have a tendency to peak in the away magnetic field sector. By splitting the data by the dominant polarity at each solar polar region, we find that the increase in GCR flux prior to the HCS crossing is primarily from strong compressions in cycles with negative north polar fields due to GCR drift effects. Finally, we report on unexpected differences in GCR behavior between TA weak compressions during opposing polarity cycles.
KeywordsCosmic rays Heliospheric current sheet 22-year cycle Energetic particles
We are grateful to the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre for combining the data into the OMNI 2 dataset which was obtained via the GSFC/SPDF OMNIWeb interface at http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov . We also thank the Bartol Research Institute of the University of Delaware for the neutron monitor data from McMurdo, which is supported by NSF grant ATM-0527878. The work of SRT is supported by a studentship from the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).
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