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Solar Dynamics Observatory and Hinode Observations of a Blowout Jet in a Coronal Hole

Abstract

A blowout jet occurred within the south coronal hole on 9 February 2011 at 09:00 UT and was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) onboard the Hinode spacecraft during coronal-hole monitoring performed as part of Hinode Operations Program No. 177. Images from AIA show expanding hot and cold loops from a small bright point with plasma ejected in a curtain up to 30 Mm wide. The initial intensity front of the jet had a projected velocity of 200 km s−1, and the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities measured by EIS are between 100 and 250 km s−1. The LOS velocities increased along the jet, implying that an acceleration mechanism operates within the body of the jet. The jet plasma had a density of 2.7×108 cm−3 and a temperature of 1.4 MK. During the event a number of bright kernels were seen at the base of the bright point. The kernels have sizes of ≈ 1000 km, are variable in brightness, and have lifetimes of 1 – 15 minutes. An XRT filter ratio yields temperatures of 1.5 – 3.0 MK for the kernels. The bright point existed for at least ten hours, but disappeared within two hours after the jet, which lasted for 30 minutes. HMI data reveal converging photospheric flows at the location of the bright point, and the mixed-polarity magnetic flux canceled over a period of four hours on either side of the jet.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge funding from National Science Foundation grant AGS-1159353. Valuable comments from the anonymous referee and E. Pariat are acknowledged. SDO is a mission for NASA’s Living With a Star program. Data are provided courtesy of NASA/SDO and the AIA and HMI science teams. Hinode is a Japanese mission developed and launched by ISAS/JAXA, with NAOJ as domestic partner and NASA and STFC (UK) as international partners. It is operated by these agencies in co-operation with ESA and NSC (Norway).

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Correspondence to P. R. Young.

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The Many Scales of Solar Activity in Solar Cycle 24 as seen by SDO

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Appendix: AIA DEM Analysis of Bright Point Kernels

Appendix: AIA DEM Analysis of Bright Point Kernels

A differential emission-measure analysis of two of the bright point kernels was attempted using the AIA filter data, but the results are not considered accurate due to the large emission measure found at ≈ 107 K, which is inconsistent with the XRT filter-ratio results. Here we record the method used to derive the AIA DEM curves.

The multiple filters of AIA give access to a wide range of temperatures, but for most of the channels the temperature-response functions show multiple peaks because emission lines formed at different temperatures contribute to the passband (Boerner et al. 2012). Hannah and Kontar (2012) presented a differential-emission-measure method that can be applied to AIA data, which was applied to the initial kernel using images obtained between 08:51:49 and 08:51:59 UT, and also a bright elongated feature observed between 09:02:26 and 09:02:37 UT (Figure 5g) that probably consists of two or three kernels. We refer to these two features as “kernel 1” and “kernel 2’. The kernel intensities for the six coronal filters, A94, A131, A171, A193, A211, and A335, were measured and a background intensity was subtracted for each of the A131, A171, A193, and A211 filters (the background level for the remaining filters was negligible). The values are given in Table 1. The method of Hannah and Kontar (2012) yielded a continuous DEM curve between log T=5.6 and 7.4 for each kernel, which are shown in Figure 8. (We note that the /noblend, /evenorm, and /chiantifix keywords were applied when retrieving the AIA response functions.) Both curves show emission at low temperatures (log T=5.9 to 6.4) with an additional peak at log T=7.1, suggesting there is a significant amount of very hot plasma in the kernels. However, this result is at odds with the XRT observations, since both the Ti-poly and Be-thin filters are much more sensitive at 107 K than at 106 K. Folding the XRT response curves with the derived DEMs yields predicted Be-thin/Ti-poly ratios of 0.68 and 0.66 for the two kernels that are much higher than the measured ratios during the XRT sequence. The reason for the spurious DEM curves from AIA are most likely contributions of cool lines to the A94 and A131 channels that are currently unaccounted for in atomic models.

Figure 8
figure8

Differential-emission-measure curves for two kernels within the jet bright point, derived from AIA filter intensities.

Table 1 Kernel intensity measurements.

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Young, P.R., Muglach, K. Solar Dynamics Observatory and Hinode Observations of a Blowout Jet in a Coronal Hole. Sol Phys 289, 3313–3329 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-014-0484-z

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Keywords

  • Coronal holes
  • Jets
  • Magnetic fields, photosphere
  • Spectral line, intensity and diagnostics
  • Spectrum, ultraviolet
  • Velocity fields, photosphere