Solar Physics

, Volume 289, Issue 5, pp 1745–1762 | Cite as

Variation of Proton Flux Profiles with the Observer’s Latitude in Simulated Gradual SEP Events

  • R. Rodríguez-GasénEmail author
  • A. Aran
  • B. Sanahuja
  • C. Jacobs
  • S. Poedts


We studied the variation of the shape of the proton intensity–time profiles in simulated gradual Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events with the relative observer’s position in space with respect to the main direction of propagation of an interplanetary (IP) shock. Using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code to simulate such a shock, we determined the evolution of the downstream-to-upstream ratios of the plasma variables at its front. Under the assumption of an existing relation between the normalized ratio in speed across the shock front and the injection rate of shock-accelerated particles, we modelled the transport of the particles and obtained the proton flux profiles to be measured by a grid of 18 virtual observers located at 0.4 and 1.0 AU, with different latitudes and longitudes with respect to the shock nose. The differences among flux profiles are the result of the way each observer establishes a magnetic connection with the shock front, and we found that changes in the observer’s latitude may result in intensity changes of up to one order of magnitude at the two radial distances considered here. The peak intensity variation with the radial distance for the pair of observers located at the same angular position was also derived. This is the first time that the latitudinal dependence of the peak intensity with the observer’s heliocentric radial distance has been quantified within the framework of gradual SEP event simulations.


Energetic particles, protons Magnetohydrodynamics Solar wind Shock waves 



These results were obtained at Universitat de Barcelona in the framework of the projects AYA2007-60724 and AYA2010-17286 of the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación. AA was supported by an ESA internal research fellowship. RR-G also acknowledges financial support from EU FP7 SEpserver project (n. 262773). CJ and SP acknowledge the support of the GOA/2009-009 (K.U. Leuven), G.0729.11 (FWO-Vlaanderen) and C 90347 (ESA Prodex 9), and partial funding from the EU FP7 projects SOLSPANET (n. 269299), SPACECAST (n. 262468), eHeroes (n. 284461) and SWIFF (n. 263340). The authors acknowledge the use of the computing facilities of the supercomputer cluster of CESCA (Centre de Serveis Científics i Acadèmics de Catalunya, Barcelona) and the high-performance VIC cluster at the Katholieke Universiteit (Leuven). We are also grateful to the faculty of ESA (European Space Agency) for the financial support to visit ESA/ESTEC.


  1. Agueda, N., Lario, D., Ontiveros, V., Kilpua, E., Sanahuja, B., Vainio, R.: 2012, Solar Phys. 281, 319. ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Aran, A.: 2007, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. de Barcelona.
  3. Aran, A., Sanahuja, B., Lario, D.: 2005, Ann. Geophys. 23, 3047. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aran, A., Sanahuja, B., Lario, D.: 2006, Adv. Space Res. 37, 1240. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aran, A., Sanahuja, B., Lario, D.: 2008, Adv. Space Res. 42, 1492. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aran, A., Lario, D., Sanahuja, B., Marsden, R.G., Dryer, M., Fry, C.D., McKenna-Lawlor, S.M.P.: 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 469, 1123. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aran, A., Jiggens, P., Sanahuja, B., Jacobs, C., Heynderickx, D., Lario, D.: 2011, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts SH33-B2051. Google Scholar
  8. Balogh, A., Lanzeroti, L., Suess, S.T.: 2008, In: The Heliosphere Through the Solar Activity Cycle, Springer-Praxis Books and Springer Science and Business Media, New York. Google Scholar
  9. Battarbee, M., Laitinen, T., Vainio, R.: 2011, Astron. Astrophys. 535, A34. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cliver, E.W., Svalgaard, L.: 2004, Solar Phys. 224, 407. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Colaninno, R.C., Vourlidas, A.: 2009, Astrophys. J. 698, 852. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cucinotta, F.A., Hu, S., Schwadron, N.A., Kozarev, K., Townsend, L.W., Kim, M.-H.Y.: 2010, Space Weather 8, S00E09. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dalla, S., Agueda, N.: 2010, In: Twelfth Int. Solar Wind Conf., AIP Conf. Proc. 1216, 613. Google Scholar
  14. Dalla, S., Balogh, A., Krucker, S., Posner, A., Müller-Mellin, R., Anglin, J.D., Hofer, M.Y., Marsden, R.G., Sanderson, T.R., Heber, B., Zhang, M., McKibben, R.B.: 2003a, Ann. Geophys. 21, 1367. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dalla, S., Balogh, A., Krucker, S., Posner, A., Müller-Mellin, R., Anglin, J.D., Hofer, M.Y., Marsden, R.G., Sanderson, T.R., Tranquille, C., Heber, B., Zhang, M., McKibben, R.B.: 2003b, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 8035. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dayeh, M.A., Desai, M.I., Kozarev, K., Schwadron, N.A., Townsend, L.W., PourArsalan, M., Zeitlin, C., Hatcher, R.B.: 2010, Space Weather 8, S00E07. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Evans, C.R., Hawley, J.F.: 1988, Astrophys. J. 332, 659. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feynman, J., Gabriel, S.B.: 2000, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 10543. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heras, A.M., Sanahuja, B., Lario, D., Smith, Z.K., Detman, T., Dryer, M.: 1995, Astrophys. J. 445, 497. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jacobs, C.: 2007, Ph.D. thesis, Katholieke Univ. Leuven.
  21. Kivelson, M.G., Russell, C.T.: 1995, In: Kivelson, M.G., Russell, C.T. (eds.) Introduction to Space Physics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Google Scholar
  22. Kocharov, L., Vainio, R., Pomoell, J., Valtonen, E., Klassen, A., Young, C.A.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 753, 87. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lario, D.: 1997, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. de Barcelona. Google Scholar
  24. Lario, D., Aran, A., Decker, R.B.: 2008, Space Weather 6, 12001. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lario, D., Sanahuja, B., Heras, A.M.: 1998, Astrophys. J. 509, 415. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lario, D., Haggerty, D.K., Roelof, E.C., Tappin, S.J., Forsyth, R.J., Gosling, J.T.: 2001, Space Sci. Rev. 97, 277. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lario, D., Decker, R.B., Livi, S., Krimigis, S.M., Roelof, E.C., Russell, C.T., Fry, C.D.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res. 110, 9. Google Scholar
  28. Lario, D., Kallenrode, M., Decker, R.B., Roelof, E.C., Krimigis, S.M., Aran, A., Sanahuja, B.: 2006, Astrophys. J. 653, 1531. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lario, D., Aran, A., Agueda, N., Sanahuja, B.: 2007, Adv. Space Res. 40, 289. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lario, D., Aran, A., Gómez-Herrero, R., Dressing, N., Heber, B., Ho, G.C., Decker, R.B., Roelof, E.C.: 2013, Astrophys. J. 767, 41. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Luhmann, J.G., Ledvina, S.A., Odstrčil, D., Owens, M.J., Zhao, X., Liu, Y., Riley, P.: 2010, Adv. Space Res. 46, 1. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manchester, W.B., Vourlidas, A., Tóth, G., Lugaz, N., Roussev, I.I., Sokolov, I.V., Gombosi, T.I., Se Zeeuw, D.L., Opher, M.: 2008, Astrophys. J. 684, 1448. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mariani, F., Neubauer, F.M.: 1990, In: Schwenn, R., Marsch, E. (eds.) The Interplanetary Magnetic Field, Springer, Berlin. Google Scholar
  34. McGuire, R.E., Lal, N., Van Hollebeke, M.A.I.: 1983, Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 10, 353. ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Rodríguez-Gasén, R.: 2011, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. de Barcelona.
  36. Rodríguez-Gasén, R., Aran, A., Sanahuja, B., Jacobs, C., Poedts, S.: 2011, Adv. Space Res. 47, 2140. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rouillard, A.P., Odstrčil, D., Sheeley, N.R., Tylka, A., Vourlidas, A., Mason, G., Wu, C.-C., Savani, N.P., Wood, B.E., Ng, C.K., Stenborg, G., Szabo, A., St. Cyr, O.C.: 2011, Astrophys. J. 735, 7. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roussev, I.I., Sokolov, I.V., Forber, T.G., Gombosi, T.I., Lee, M.A., Sakai, J.I.: 2004, Astrophys. J. Lett. 605, L73. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ruzmaikin, A., Li, G., Zank, G., Feynman, J., Jun, I.: 2005, In: Fleck, B., Zurbuchen, T.H., Lacoste, H. (eds.) Solar Wind 11/SOHO 16, Connecting Sun and Heliosphere SP-592, ESA, Noordwijk, 231. Google Scholar
  40. Simnett, G.M.: 2001, Space Sci. Rev. 97, 231. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sokolov, I.V., Roussev, I.I., Gombosi, T.I., Lee, M.A., Kóta, J., Forbes, T.G., Manchester, W.B., Sakai, J.I.: 2004, Astrophys. J. Lett. 616, L171. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vainio, R., Laitinen, T.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 658, 622. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vainio, R., Laitinen, T.: 2008, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 70, 467. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vainio, R., Agueda, N., Aran, A., Lario, D.: 2007, In: Lilensten, J. (ed.) Space Weather: Research Towards Applications in Europe 2nd European Space Weather Week (ESWW2), Astrophys. Space Scien. Lib. 344, 27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Verkhoglyadova, O.P., Li, G., Zank, G.P., Hu, Q., Cohen, C.M.S., Mewaldt, R.A., Mason, G.M., Haggerty, D.K., von Rosenvinge, T.T., Looper, M.D.: 2010, J. Geophys. Res. 115, 12103. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Verkhoglyadova, O.P., Li, G., Ao, X., Zank, G.P.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 757, 75. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Volkmer, P.M., Neubauer, F.M.: 1985, Ann. Geophys. 3, 1. ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Zeitlin, C., Hassier, D.M., Cucinotta, F.A., Ehremann, B., Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F., Brinza, D.E., Kang, S., Weigle, G., Böhm, E., Burmesiter, S., Guo, J., Köhler, J., Martin, C., Posner, A., Rafkin, S., Reitz, G.: 2013, Science 340, 1080. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Rodríguez-Gasén
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • A. Aran
    • 3
    • 4
  • B. Sanahuja
    • 3
  • C. Jacobs
    • 5
  • S. Poedts
    • 5
  1. 1.LESIA, Observatoire de ParisCNRS, UPMC and Univ. Paris-DiderotMeudon CedexFrance
  2. 2.CSNSM, IN2P3-CNRSUniv. Paris-SudOrsay CedexFrance
  3. 3.Departament d’Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciències del CosmosUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Research and Scientific Support Department of ESAESTECNoordwijkThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Centrum voor Plasma-Astrofysica and Leuven Mathematical Modelling CentreK.U.LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations