A Challenging Solar Eruptive Event of 18 November 2003 and the Causes of the 20 November Geomagnetic Superstorm. II. CMEs, Shock Waves, and Drifting Radio Bursts
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We continue our study (Grechnev et al., 2013, doi: 10.1007/s11207-013-0316-6 ; Paper I) on the 18 November 2003 geoffective event. To understand possible impact on geospace of coronal transients observed on that day, we investigated their properties from solar near-surface manifestations in extreme ultraviolet, LASCO white-light images, and dynamic radio spectra. We reconcile near-surface activity with the expansion of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and determine their orientation relative to the earthward direction. The kinematic measurements, dynamic radio spectra, and microwave and X-ray light curves all contribute to the overall picture of the complex event and confirm an additional eruption at 08:07 – 08:20 UT close to the solar disk center presumed in Paper I. Unusual characteristics of the ejection appear to match those expected for a source of the 20 November superstorm but make its detection in LASCO images hopeless. On the other hand, none of the CMEs observed by LASCO seem to be a promising candidate for a source of the superstorm being able to produce, at most, a glancing blow on the Earth’s magnetosphere. Our analysis confirms free propagation of shock waves revealed in the event and reconciles their kinematics with “EUV waves” and dynamic radio spectra up to decameters.
KeywordsCoronal mass ejections, initiation and propagation Radio bursts, microwave, type II and IV Waves, shock X-ray bursts
We thank Viktoria Kurt for the CORONAS-F/SONG data, L. Kashapova and S. Kalashnikov for the assistance in data processing, and I. Kuzmenko for useful discussions. We are grateful to an anonymous reviewer for useful remarks. We thank the instrumental teams of the Kanzelhöhe Solar Observatory; MDI, EIT, and LASCO on SOHO (ESA & NASA project); the USAF RSTN Radio Solar Telescope Network; RHESSI; and the GOES satellites for the data used here. We thank the team maintaining the CME Catalog at the CDAW Data Center by NASA and the Catholic University of America in cooperation with the Naval Research Laboratory. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research under grants 11-02-00757, 11-02-01079, 12-02-00008, 12-02-92692, and 12-02-00037, The Ministry of education and science of Russian Federation, projects 8407 and 14.518.11.7047. The research was also partly supported by the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement eHeroes (project No. 284461), www.eheroes.eu .
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