Advertisement

Solar Physics

, Volume 287, Issue 1–2, pp 197–214 | Cite as

A Comparison of Solar Cycle Variations in the Equatorial Rotation Rates of the Sun’s Subsurface, Surface, Corona, and Sunspot Groups

  • J. JavaraiahEmail author
Solar Dynamics and Magnetism

Abstract

Using the Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) sunspot-group data for the period 1985 – 2010, the variations in the annual mean equatorial-rotation rates of the sunspot groups are determined and compared with the known variations in the solar equatorial-rotation rates determined from the following data: i) the plasma rotation rates at 0.94R,0.95R,…,1.0R measured by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) during the period 1995 – 2010, ii) the data on the soft-X-ray corona determined from Yohkoh/SXT full-disk images for the years 1992 – 2001, iii) the data on small bright coronal structures (SBCS) that were traced in Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/EIT images during the period 1998 – 2006, and iv) the Mount Wilson Doppler-velocity measurements during the period 1986 – 2007. A large portion (up to ≈ 30 latitude) of the mean differential-rotation profile of the sunspot groups lies between those of the internal differential-rotation rates at 0.94R and 0.98R. The variation in the yearly mean equatorial-rotation rate of the sunspot groups seems to be lagging behind that of the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the GONG measurements by one to two years. The amplitude of the GONG measurements is very small. The solar-cycle variation in the equatorial-rotation rate of the solar corona closely matches that determined from the sunspot-group data. The variation in the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the Mount Wilson Doppler-velocity data closely resembles the corresponding variation in the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the sunspot-group data that included the values of the abnormal angular motions (> |3| day−1) of the sunspot groups. Implications of these results are pointed out.

Keywords

Solar Cycle Rotation Rate Sunspot Group Global Oscillation Network Group Solar Convection Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author thanks the anonymous referee for the detailed comments and useful suggestions, and H.M. Antia for providing the values of the internal-rotation rates that he has determined from GONG data. The author also thanks Luca Bertello for helpful comments and suggestions, B.A. Varghese for his help in making the figures, and the organizers of the LWS/SDO-3/SOHO26/GONG-2011 workshop for kindly providing a partial financial support to attend the workshop. This work used data obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Program, managed by the National Solar Observatory (NSO), which is operated by AURA, Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The data were acquired by instruments operated by the Big Bear Solar Observatory, High Altitude Observatory, Learmonth Solar Observatory, Udaipur Solar Observatory, Instituto de Astrofísico de Canarias, and Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory.

References

  1. Antia, H.M., Basu, S., Chitre, S.M.: 2008, Astrophys. J. 681, 680. doi: 10.1086/588523. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antia, H.M., Basu, S.: 2010, Astrophys. J. 720, 494. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/720/1/494. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babcock, H.W.: 1961, Astrophys. J. 133, 572. doi: 10.1086/147060. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balthasar, H., Vázquez, M., Wöhl, H.: 1986, Astron. Astrophys. 155, 87. ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Brandenburg, A.: 2005, Astrophys. J. 625, 539. doi: 10.1086/429584. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brajša, R., Ruždjak, D., Wöhl, H.: 2006, Solar Phys. 237, 365. doi: 10.1007/s11207-006-0076-7. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carrington, R.C.: 1863 Observations of the Spots on the Sun, Williams and Norgate, London. Google Scholar
  8. Chandra, S., Vats, H.O., Iyer, K.N.: 2010, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 407, 1108. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16947.x. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chou, D.-Y., Fisher, G.H.: 1989, Astrophys. J. 341, 533. doi: 10.1086/167514. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dikpati, M., Gilman, P.A.: 2006, Astrophys. J. 649, 498. doi: 10.1086/506314. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. D’Silva, S., Howard, R.F.: 1994, Solar Phys. 151, 213. doi: 10.1007/BF00679072. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Foukal, P.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 173, 439. doi: 10.1086/151435. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Godoli, G., Mazzucconi, F.: 1979, Solar Phys. 64, 247. doi: 10.1007/BF00151436. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gough, D.O.: 2010, In: Hasan, S.S., Rutten, R.J. (eds.) Magnetic Coupling Between the Interior and the Atmosphere of the Sun, Astrophys. Space Sci. Proc. SSA 1570-6591, Springer, Berlin, 37. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-02859-5_4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gupta, S.S., Sivaraman, K.R., Howard, R.: 1999, Solar Phys. 188, 225. doi: 10.1023/A:1005229124554. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hiremath, K.M.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 386, 674. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20020276. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hiremath, K.M., Suryanarayana, G.S.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 411, L497. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20031618. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Howard, R., LaBonte, B.J.: 1980, Astron. Astrophys. 239, L33. doi: 10.1086/183286. ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Howard, R., Gilman, P.I., Gilman, P.A.: 1984, Astrophys. J. 283, 373. doi: 10.1086/162315. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Howe, R., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Hill, F., Komm, R.W., Larsen, R.M., Schou, J., Thompson, M.J., Toomre, J.: 2000, Astrophys. J. Lett. 533, L163. doi: 10.1086/312623. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Javaraiah, J.: 2003a, Solar Phys. 212, 23. doi: 10.1023/A:1022912430585. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Javaraiah, J.: 2003b, In: Pevtsov, A.A., Uitenbroek, H. (eds.) Current Theoretical Models and Future High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST CS-286, Astron. Soc. Pac., San Francisco, 325. Google Scholar
  23. Javaraiah, J.: 2005, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 362, 1311. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09403.x. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Javaraiah, J.: 2011, Adv. Space Res. 48, 1032. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2011.05.004. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Javaraiah, J.: 2012, Solar Phys. 281, 827. doi: 10.1007/s11207-012-0106-6. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Javaraiah, J., Bertello, L., Ulrich, R.K.: 2005a, Astrophys. J. 626, 579. doi: 10.1086/429898. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Javaraiah, J., Bertello, L., Ulrich, R.K.: 2005b, Solar Phys. 232, 25. doi: 10.1007/s11207-005-8776-y. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Javaraiah, J., Gokhale, M.H.: 1995, Solar Phys. 158, 173. doi: 10.1007/BF00680841. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Javaraiah, J., Gokhale, M.H.: 1997a, Solar Phys. 170, 389. doi: 10.1023/A:1004928020737. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Javaraiah, J., Gokhale, M.H.: 1997b, Astron. Astrophys. 327, 795. ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Javaraiah, J., Gokhale, M.H.: 2002, The Sun’s Rotation, Nova Science, New York. Google Scholar
  32. Javaraiah, J., Komm, R.W.: 1999, Solar Phys. 184, 41. doi: 10.1023/A:1005028128077. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Javaraiah, J., Ulrich, R.K.: 2006, Solar Phys. 237, 245. doi: 10.1007/s11207-006-0130-5. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Javaraiah, J., Ulrich, R.K., Bertello, L., Boyden, J.E.: 2009, Solar Phys. 257, 61. doi: 10.1007/s11207-009-9342-9. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jurdana-Šepić, R., Brajša, R., Wöhl, H., Hanslmeier, A., Poljančić, I., Svalgaard, L., Gissot, S.F.: 2011, Astron. Astrophys. 534, A17. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014357. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kambry, M.A., Nishikawa, J.: 1990, Solar Phys. 126, 89. doi: 10.1007/BF00158300. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Karak, B.B.: 2010, Astrophys. J. 724, 1021. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/724/2/1021. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kosovichev, A.G.: 2002, Astron. Nachr. 323, 186. doi: 10.1002/1521-3994(200208)323:3/4<186::AID-ASNA186>3.0.CO;2-I. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kosovichev, A.G., Duvall, T.L. Jr., Scherrer, P.H.: 2000, Solar Phys. 192, 159. doi: 10.1023/A:1005251208431. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Meunier, N.: 2005, Astron. Astrophys. 436, 1075. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20042414. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Meyer, F., Schmidt, H.U., Simon, G.V., Weiss, N.O.: 1979, Astron. Astrophys. 76, 35. ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Moreno-Insertis, F.: 1986, Astron. Astrophys. 166, 291. ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  43. Petrovay, K., Brown, J.C., van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., Fletcher, L., Marik, M., Stewart, G.: 1990, Solar Phys. 127, 51. doi: 10.1007/BF00158513. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rosner, R., Weiss, N.O.: 1992, In: Harvey, K.L. (ed.) The Solar Cycle CS-27, Astron. Soc. Pac., San Francisco, 511. Google Scholar
  45. Ruždjak, D., Ruždjak, V., Brajša, R., Wöhl, H.: 2004, Solar Phys. 221, 225. doi: 10.1023/B:SOLA.0000035066.96031.4f. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schüssler, M., Rempel, M.: 2005, Astron. Astrophys. 441, 337. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20052962. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shibata, K., Nozawa, R., Matsumoto, R., Sterling, A.C., Tajima, T.: 1990, Astrophys. J. 351, L25. doi: 10.1086/185671. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sivaraman, K.R., Sivaraman, H., Gupta, S.S., Howard, R.: 2003, Solar Phys. 214, 65. doi: 10.1023/A:1024075100667. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Suryanarayana, G.S.: 2010, New Astron. 15, 313. doi: 10.1016/j.newast.2009.09.004. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Suzuki, M.: 2012, Solar Phys. 278, 257. doi: 10.1007/s11207-012-9946-3. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tuominen, J.: 1962, Z. Astrophys. 55, 110. ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Tuominen, I., Virtanen, H.: 1988, Adv. Space Res. 8, 141. doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(88)90183-4. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ulrich, R.K.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 560, 466. doi: 10.1086/322524. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ulrich, R.K., Boyden, J.E.: 2005, Astrophys. J. Lett. 620, L123. doi: 10.1086/428724. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., Petrovay, K.: 1990, Solar Phys. 126, 285. doi: 10.1007/BF00153051. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ward, F.: 1965, Astrophys. J. 141, 534. doi: 10.1086/148143. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ward, F.: 1966, Astrophys. J. 145, 416. doi: 10.1086/148783. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of AstrophysicsBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations