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Solar Physics

, Volume 281, Issue 1, pp 353–367 | Cite as

4π Models of CMEs and ICMEs (Invited Review)

  • J. KleimannEmail author
THE SUN 360 Invited Review

Abstract

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which dynamically connect the solar surface to the far reaches of interplanetary space, represent a major manifestation of solar activity. They are not only of principal interest but also play a pivotal role in the context of space weather predictions. The steady improvement of both numerical methods and computational resources during recent years has allowed for the creation of increasingly realistic models of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs), which can now be compared to high-quality observational data from various space-borne missions. This review discusses existing models of CMEs, characterizing them by scientific aim and scope, CME initiation method, and physical effects included, thereby stressing the importance of fully 3D (“4π”) spatial coverage.

Keywords

Coronal mass ejections: initiation and propagation Coronal heating theory Magnetohydrodynamics Solar wind: disturbances 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Financial support through Research Unit 1048 (projects FI 706/8-1 and FI 706/8-2), funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), is gratefully acknowledged. This work also benefited from the EU RNT Solaire (MTRN-CT-2006-035484). Furthermore, the author thanks Horst Fichtner and the anonymous referee for their constructive comments.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Theoretische Physik IVRuhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany

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