This article proposes a unified observational model of solar activity based on sunspot number and the solar global activity in the rotation of the structures, both per 11-year cycle. The rotation rates show a variation of a half-century period and the same period is also associated to the sunspot amplitude variation. The global solar rotation interweaves with the observed global organisation of solar activity. An important role for this assembly is played by the Grand Cycle formed by the merging of five sunspot cycles: a forgotten discovery by R. Wolf. On the basis of these elements, the nature of the Dalton Minimum, the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Grand Minima are presented.
KeywordsSolar Activity Rotation Rate Sunspot Number Maunder Minimum Grand Minimum
We acknowledge the Solar Influences Data Analysis Centre (SIDC) for the sunspot number data. I like to thank Dr. Ludwig Klein for careful review of the article. The author thanks the anonymous referee for comments.
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