Solar Physics

, Volume 284, Issue 2, pp 315–327 | Cite as

Properties of the 15 February 2011 Flare Seismic Sources

  • S. Zharkov
  • L. M. Green
  • S. A. Matthews
  • V. V. Zharkova
ADVANCES IN EUROPEAN SOLAR PHYSICS

Abstract

The first near-side X-class flare of Solar Cycle 24 occurred in February 2011 (SOL2011-02-05T01:55) and produced a very strong seismic response in the photosphere. One sunquake was reported by Kosovichev (Astrophys. J. Lett. 734, L15, 2011), followed by the discovery of a second sunquake by Zharkov, Green, Matthews et al. (Astrophys. J. Lett. 741, L35, 2011). The flare had a two-ribbon structure and was associated with a flux-rope eruption and a halo coronal mass ejection (CME) as reported in the CACTus catalogue. Following the discovery of the second sunquake and the spatial association of both sources with the locations of the feet of the erupting flux rope (Zharkov, Green, Matthews et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 741, L35, 2011), we present here a more detailed analysis of the observed photospheric changes in and around the seismic sources. These sunquakes are quite unusual, taking place early in the impulsive stage of the flare, with the seismic sources showing little hard X-ray (HXR) emission, and strongest X-ray emission sources located in the flare ribbons. We present a directional time–distance diagram computed for the second source, which clearly shows a ridge corresponding to the travelling acoustic-wave packet and find that the sunquake at the second source happened about 45 seconds to one minute earlier than the first source. Using acoustic holography we report different frequency responses of the two sources. We find strong downflows at both seismic locations and a supersonic horizontal motion at the second site of acoustic-wave excitation.

Keywords

Sun: helioseismology Sun: flares Sun: X-rays Gamma ray 

Abbreviations

SDO

Solar Dynamics Observatory

HMI

Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager

AIA

Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank C. Lindsey for his help in obtaining acoustic-energy estimates. The authors also thank the anonymous referee for their insightful comments. We acknowledge the Leverhulme Trust for funding the “Probing the Sun: inside and out” project upon which this research is based. We acknowledge use of SDO/HMI data, courtesy of NASA/SDO and the HMI science team, data courtesy of Hinode, a Japanese mission developed and launched by ISAS/JAXA in partnership with NAOJ and in collaboration with NASA (USA) and STFC (UK), and operated by these agencies in co-operation with ESA and NSC (Norway), and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), a NASA small explorer mission.

References

  1. Alvarado-Gómez, J.D., Buitrago-Casas, J.C., Martínez-Oliveros, J.C., Lindsey, C., Hudson, H., Calvo-Mozo, B.: 2012, Solar Phys., 131. ADS:2012SoPh..tmp..131A, doi: 10.1007/s11207-012-0009-6.
  2. Besliu-Ionescu, D., Donea, A., Cally, P., Lindsey, C.: 2005, In: Danesy, D., Poedts, S., De Groof, A., Andries, J. (eds.) The Dynamic Sun: Challenges for Theory and Observations SP-600, ESA, Noordwijk, 111. ADS:2005ESASP.600E.111B. Google Scholar
  3. Besliu-Ionescu, D., Donea, A.-C., Cally, P., Lindsey, C.: 2006, In: Fletcher, K., Thompson, M.J. (eds.) Proceedings of SOHO 18/GONG 2006/HELAS I, Beyond the spherical Sun SP-624, ESA, Noordwijk, 67. ADS:2006ESASP.624E..67B. Google Scholar
  4. Braun, D. C., Lindsey, C.: 1999, Astrophys. J. Lett. 513, L79. ADS:1999ApJ513L..79B, doi: 10.1086/311897. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braun, D.C., Lindsey, C.: 2000, Solar Phys. 192, 285. ADS:2000SoPh..192..285B, doi: 10.1023/A:1005287419566 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cally, P.S.: 2000, Solar Phys. 192, 395. ADS:2000SoPh..192..395C, doi: 10.1023/A:1005213002513. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Dappen, W., Ajukov, S.V., Anderson, E.R., Antia, H.M., Basu, S., Baturin, V.A., Berthomieu, G., Chaboyer, B., Chitre, S.M., Cox, A.N., Demarque, P., Donatowicz, J., Dziembowski, W.A., Gabriel, M., Gough, D.O., Guenther, D.B., Guzik, J.A., Harvey, J.W., Hill, F., Houdek, G., Iglesias, C.A., Kosovichev, A.G., Leibacher, J.W., Morel, P., Proffitt, C.R., Provost, J., Reiter, J., Rhodes, E.J. Jr., Rogers, F.J., Roxburgh, I.W., Thompson, M.J., Ulrich, R.K.: 1996, Science 272, 1286. doi: 10.1126/science.272.5266.1286. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Donea, A.: 2011, Space Sci. Rev. 158, 451. doi: 10.1007/s11214-011-9787-7. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Donea, A., Lindsey, C.: 2005, Astrophys. J. 630, 1168. doi: 10.1086/432155. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Donea, A., Braun, D.C., Lindsey, C.: 1999, Astrophys. J. Lett. 513, L143. doi: 10.1086/311915. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Donea, A.-C., Lindsey, C., Braun, D.C.: 2000, Solar Phys. 192(1), 321. ADS:2000SoPh..192..321D, doi: 10.1023/A:1005280327665. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Donea, A.C., Besliu-Ionescu, D., Cally, P., Lindsey, C.: 2006, In: Leibacher, J., Stein, R.F., Uitenbroek, H. (eds.) Solar MHD Theory and Observations: A High Spatial Resolution Perspective CS-354, Astron. Soc. Pacific, San Francisco, 204. ADS:2006ASPC..354..204D. Google Scholar
  13. Duvall, T.L. Jr., Jefferies, S.M., Harvey, J.W., Pomerantz, M.A.: 1993, Nature 362, 430. doi: 10.1038/362430a0. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duvall, T.L. Jr., Kosovichev, A.G., Scherrer, P.H., Bogart, R.S., Bush, R.I., de Forest, C., Hoeksema, J.T., Schou, J., Saba, J.L.R., Tarbell, T.D., Title, A.M., Wolfson, C.J., Milford, P.N.: 1997, Solar Phys. 170, 63. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Felipe, T., Khomenko, E., Collados, M.: 2010, Astrophys. J. 719, 357. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/719/1/357. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fisher, G.H., Welsch, B.T., Abbett, W.P.: 2012, Solar Phys. 277, 153. ADS:2012SoPh..277..153F, doi: 10.1007/s11207-011-9816-4. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fisher, G., Bercik, D., Welsch, B., Hudson, H.: 2012, Solar Phys. 277, 59. ADS:2012SoPh..277...59F, doi: 10.1007/s11207-011-9907-2. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hudson, H.S., Fisher, G.H., Welsch, B.T.: 2008, In: Howe, R., Komm, R.W., Balasubramaniam, K.S., Petrie, G.J.D. (eds.) Subsurface and Atmospheric Influences on Solar Activity CS-383, Astron. Soc. Pacific, San Francisco, 221. ADS:2008ASPC..383..221H. Google Scholar
  19. Kosovichev, A.G.: 2006, Solar Phys. 238, 1. ADS:2006SoPh..238....1K, doi: 10.1007/s11207-006-0190-6. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kosovichev, A.G.: 2007, Astrophys. J. Lett. 670, L65. doi: 10.1086/524036. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kosovichev, A.G.: 2011, Astrophys. J. Lett. 734, L15. doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/734/1/L15. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kosovichev, A.G., Zharkova, V.V.: 1998, Nature 393, 317. doi: 10.1038/30629. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kosovichev, A.G., Duvall, T.L.. Jr., Scherrer, P.H.: 2000, Solar Phys. 192, 159. ADS:2000SoPh..192..159K, doi: 10.1023/A:1005251208431. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lin, R.P., Dennis, B.R., Hurford, G.J., Smith, D.M., Zehnder, A., Harvey, P.R., Curtis, D.W., Pankow, D., Turin, P., Bester, M., Csillaghy, A., Lewis, M., Madden, N., van Beek, H.F., Appleby, M., Raudorf, T., McTiernan, J., Ramaty, R., Schmahl, E., Schwartz, R., Krucker, S., Abiad, R., Quinn, T., Berg, P., Hashii, M., Sterling, R., Jackson, R., Pratt, R., Campbell, R.D., Malone, D., Landis, D., Barrington-Leigh, C.P., Slassi-Sennou, S., Cork, C., Clark, D., Amato, D., Orwig, L., Boyle, R., Banks, I.S., Shirey, K., Tolbert, A.K., Zarro, D., Snow, F., Thomsen, K., Henneck, R., McHedlishvili, A., Ming, P., Fivian, M., Jordan, J., Wanner, R., Crubb, J., Preble, J., Matranga, M., Benz, A., Hudson, H., Canfield, R.C., Holman, G.D., Crannell, C., Kosugi, T., Emslie, A.G., Vilmer, N., Brown, J.C., Johns-Krull, C., Aschwanden, M., Metcalf, T., Conway, A.: 2002, Solar Phys. 210, 3. doi: 10.1023/A:1022428818870. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lindsey, C., Braun, D.C.: 2000, Solar Phys. 192, 261. ADS:2000SoPh..192..261L, doi: 10.1023/A:1005227200911. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lindsey, C., Braun, D.C.: 2004, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 155, 209. ADS:2004ApJS..155..209, doi: 10.1086/424736. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Martínez-Oliveros, J.C., Moradi, H., Donea, A.: 2008, Solar Phys. 251, 613. ADS:2008SoPh..251..613M, doi: 10.1007/s11207-008-9122-y. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matthews, S.A., Zharkov, S., Zharkova, V.V.: 2011, Astrophys. J. 739, 71. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/739/2/71. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moradi, H., Donea, A., Lindsey, C., Besliu-Ionescu, D., Cally, P.S.: 2007, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 374, 1155. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.11234.x. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moradi, H., Baldner, C., Birch, A.C., Braun, D.C., Cameron, R.H., Duvall, T.L., Gizon, L., Haber, D., Hanasoge, S.M., Hindman, B.W., Jackiewicz, J., Khomenko, E., Komm, R., Rajaguru, P., Rempel, M., Roth, M., Schlichenmaier, R., Schunker, H., Spruit, H.C., Strassmeier, K.G., Thompson, M.J., Zharkov, S.: 2010, Solar Phys. 267, 1. ADS:2010SoPh..267....1M, doi: 10.1007/s11207-010-9630-4. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Scherrer, P.H., Schou, J., Bush, R.I., Kosovichev, A.G., Bogart, R.S., Hoeksema, J.T., Liu, Y., Duvall, T.L., Zhao, J., Title, A.M., Schrijver, C.J., Tarbell, T.D., Tomczyk, S.: 2012, Solar Phys. 275, 207. ADS:2012SoPh..275..207S, doi: 10.1007/s11207-011-9834-2. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schou, J., Scherrer, P.H., Bush, R.I., Wachter, R., Couvidat, S., Rabello-Soares, M.C., Bogart, R.S., Hoeksema, J.T., Liu, Y., Duvall, T.L., Akin, D.J., Allard, B.A., Miles, J.W., Rairden, R., Shine, R.A., Tarbell, T.D., Title, A.M., Wolfson, C.J., Elmore, D.F., Norton, A.A., Tomczyk, S.: 2012, Solar Phys. 275, 229. ADS:2012SoPh..275..229S, doi: 10.1007/s11207-011-9842-2. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schrijver, C.J., Aulanier, G., Title, A.M., Pariat, E., Delannée, C.: 2011, Astrophys. J. 738, 167. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/738/2/167. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schunker, H., Cally, P.S.: 2006, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 372, 551. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10855.x. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shelyag, S., Zharkov, S., Fedun, V., Erdélyi, R., Thompson, M.J.: 2009, Astron. Astrophys. 501, 735. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/200911709. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sudol, J.J., Harvey, J.W.: 2005, Astrophys. J. 635, 647. doi: 10.1086/497361. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sun, X., Hoeksema, J.T., Liu, Y., Wiegelmann, T., Hayashi, K., Chen, Q., Thalmann, J.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 748, 77. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/748/2/77. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wolff, C.L.: 1972, Astrophys. J. 176, 833. doi: 10.1086/151680. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zharkov, S., Nicholas, C.J., Thompson, M.J.: 2007, Astron. Nachr. 328, 240. doi: 10.1002/asna.200610744. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zharkov, S., Zharkova, V.V., Matthews, S.A.: 2011, Astrophys. J. 739, 70. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/739/2/70. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zharkov, S., Green, L.M., Matthews, S.A., Zharkova, V.V.: 2011, Astrophys. J. Lett. 741, L35. doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/741/2/L35. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zharkova, V.V., Zharkov, S.I.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 664, 573. doi: 10.1086/518731. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zharkova, V.V., Zharkov, S.I., Ipson, S.S., Benkhalil, A.K.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res. 110(A9), 8104. doi: 10.1029/2004JA010934. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Zharkov
    • 1
  • L. M. Green
    • 1
  • S. A. Matthews
    • 1
  • V. V. Zharkova
    • 2
  1. 1.UCL Mullard Space Science LaboratoryUniversity College LondonDorkingUK
  2. 2.Department of MathematicsUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK

Personalised recommendations