Advertisement

Solar Physics

, Volume 286, Issue 1, pp 271–287 | Cite as

Eclipses Observed by Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) – A Sensitive Tool to Test Models for the Solar Irradiance

  • A. I. ShapiroEmail author
  • W. Schmutz
  • M. Dominique
  • A. V. Shapiro
PROBA2 – FIRST TWO YEARS OF SOLAR OBSERVATION

Abstract

We analyze the light curves of the recent solar eclipses measured by the Herzberg channel (200 – 220 nm) of the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) onboard Project for OnBoard Autonomy (PROBA2). The measurements allow us to accurately retrieve the center-to-limb variations (CLV) of the solar brightness. The formation height of the radiation depends on the observing angle, so the examination of the CLV provide information about a broad range of heights in the solar atmosphere. We employ the 1D NLTE radiative transfer COde for Solar Irradiance (COSI) to model the measured light curves and corresponding CLV dependencies. The modeling is used to test and constrain the existing 1D models of the solar atmosphere, e.g. the temperature structure of the photosphere and the treatment of the pseudo-continuum opacities in the Herzberg continuum range. We show that COSI can accurately reproduce not only the irradiance from the entire solar disk, but also the measured CLV. Hence it can be used as a reliable tool for modeling the variability of the spectral solar irradiance.

Keywords

Solar Irradiance Solar Atmosphere Solar Eclipse Contribution Function Solar Brightness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research leading to this article was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant CRSI122-130642 (FUPSOL) and grant 200020-130102. We thank the PROBA2/LYRA science team for their work in producing the data sets used in this article and their helpful recommendations. LYRA is a project of the Centre Spatial de Liège, the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, and the Royal Observatory of Belgium funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) and by the Swiss Bundesamt für Bildung und Wissenschaft. PROBA2 is an ESA micro satellite operated by the Director for Science and Robotic Exploration.

References

  1. Allende Prieto, C., Asplund, M., Fabiani Bendicho, P.: 2004, Center-to-limb variation of solar line profiles as a test of NLTE line formation calculations. Astron. Astrophys. 423, 1109 – 1117. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20047050. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benmoussa, A., Schühle, U., Haenen, K., Nesládek, M., Koizumi, S., Hochedez, J.-F.: 2004, PIN diamond detector development for LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA II. Phys. Status Solidi, a Appl. Res. 201, 2536 – 2541. doi: 10.1002/pssa.200405187. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benmoussa, A., Dammasch, I.E., Hochedez, J.-F., Schühle, U., Koller, S., Stockman, Y., Scholze, F., Richter, M., Kroth, U., Laubis, C., Dominique, M., Kretzschmar, M., Mekaoui, S., Gissot, S., Theissen, A., Giordanengo, B., Bolsee, D., Hermans, C., Gillotay, D., Defise, J.-M., Schmutz, W.: 2009, Pre-flight calibration of LYRA, the solar VUV radiometer on board PROBA2. Astron. Astrophys. 508, 1085 – 1094. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913089. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berdyugina, S.V., Solanki, S.K., Frutiger, C.: 2003, The molecular Zeeman effect and diagnostics of solar and stellar magnetic fields. II. Synthetic Stokes profiles in the Zeeman regime. Astron. Astrophys. 412, 513. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20031473. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brasseur, G., de Rudder, A., Keating, G.M., Pitts, M.C.: 1987, Response of middle atmosphere to short-term solar ultraviolet variations. II. Theory. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 903 – 914. doi: 10.1029/JD092iD01p00903. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Busá, I., Andretta, V., Gomez, M.T., Terranegra, L.: 2001, A method to estimate the effect of line blanketing in NLTE radiative transfer calculations. Astron. Astrophys. 373, 993 – 997. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20010661. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Domingo, V., Ermolli, I., Fox, P., Fröhlich, C., Haberreiter, M., Krivova, N., Kopp, G., Schmutz, W., Solanki, S.K., Spruit, H.C., Unruh, Y., Vögler, A.: 2009, Solar surface magnetism and irradiance on time scales from days to the 11-year cycle. Space Sci. Rev. 145, 337 – 380. doi: 10.1007/s11214-009-9562-1. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dominique, M., Hochedez, J.-F., Schmutz, W., Dammasch, I., BenMoussa, A., Shapiro, A.I., Kretzschmar, M.: 2012, The LYRA instrument on-board PROBA2: description and in-flight performances. Solar Phys. submitted. Google Scholar
  9. Fligge, M., Solanki, S.K., Unruh, Y.C.: 2000, Modelling irradiance variations from the surface distribution of the solar magnetic field. Astron. Astrophys. 353, 380 – 388. ADS: 2000A%26A...353..380F. ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Fontenla, J., White, O.R., Fox, P.A., Avrett, E.H., Kurucz, R.L.: 1999, Calculation of solar irradiances. I. Synthesis of the solar spectrum. Astrophys. J. 518, 480 – 499. doi: 10.1086/307258. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fontenla, J.M., Curdt, W., Haberreiter, M., Harder, J., Tian, H.: 2009, Semiempirical models of the solar atmosphere. III. Set of non-LTE models for far-ultraviolet/extreme-ultraviolet irradiance computation. Astrophys. J. 707, 482 – 502. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/482. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gray, D.F.: 1992, The Observation and Analysis of Stellar Photospheres, Camb. Astrophys. Ser. 20, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. ADS: 1992oasp.book.....G. Google Scholar
  13. Gray, L.J., Beer, J., Geller, M., Haigh, J.D., Lockwood, M., Matthes, K., Cubasch, U., Fleitmann, D., Harrison, G., Hood, L., Luterbacher, J., Meehl, G.A., Shindell, D., van Geel, B., White, W.: 2010, Solar influences on climate. Rev. Geophys. 48, RG4001. doi: 10.1029/2009RG000282. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haberreiter, M., Schmutz, W., Hubeny, I.: 2008, NLTE model calculations for the solar atmosphere with an iterative treatment of opacity distribution functions. Astron. Astrophys. 492, 833 – 840. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:200809503. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haigh, J.D.: 2007, The Sun and the Earth’s climate. Living Rev. Solar Phys. 4, 2. http://www.livingreviews.org/lrsp-2007-2. ADS: 2007LRSP....4....2H. MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haigh, J.D., Winning, A.R., Toumi, R., Harder, J.W.: 2010, An influence of solar spectral variations on radiative forcing of climate. Nature 467, 696 – 699. doi: 10.1038/nature09426. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hamann, W.-R., Schmutz, W.: 1987, Computed He ii spectra for Wolf–Rayet stars – A grid of models. Astron. Astrophys. 174, 173 – 182. ADS: 1987A%26A...174..173H. ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Harder, J.W., Fontenla, J., Lawrence, G., Woods, T., Rottman, G.: 2005, The spectral irradiance monitor: measurement equations and calibration. Solar Phys. 230, 169 – 204. doi: 10.1007/s11207-005-1528-1. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Harder, J.W., Fontenla, J.M., Pilewskie, P., Richard, E.C., Woods, T.N.: 2009, Trends in solar spectral irradiance variability in the visible and infrared. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L07801. doi: 10.1029/2008GL036797. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hestroffer, D., Magnan, C.: 1998, Wavelength dependency of the Solar limb darkening. Astron. Astrophys. 333, 338 – 342. ADS: 1998A%26A...333..338H. ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Hochedez, J.-F., Schmutz, W., Stockman, Y., Schühle, U., Benmoussa, A., Koller, S., Haenen, K., Berghmans, D., Defise, J.-M., Halain, J.-P., Theissen, A., Delouille, V., Slemzin, V., Gillotay, D., Fussen, D., Dominique, M., Vanhellemont, F., McMullin, D., Kretzschmar, M., Mitrofanov, A., Nicula, B., Wauters, L., Roth, H., Rozanov, E., Rüedi, I., Wehrli, C., Soltani, A., Amano, H., van der Linden, R., Zhukov, A., Clette, F., Koizumi, S., Mortet, V., Remes, Z., Petersen, R., Nesládek, M., D’Olieslaeger, M., Roggen, J., Rochus, P.: 2006, LYRA, a solar UV radiometer on Proba2. Adv. Space Res. 37, 303 – 312. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2005.10.041. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hubeny, I.: 1981, Non-LTE analysis of the ultraviolet spectrum of A type stars. II Theoretical considerations and interpretation of the VEGA Lyman-alpha region. Astron. Astrophys. 98, 96 – 111. ADS: 1981A%26A....98...96H. ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Kishore Kumar, K., Subrahmanyam, K.V., John, S.R.: 2011, New insights into the stratospheric and mesosphere-lower thermospheric ozone response to the abrupt changes in solar forcing. Ann. Geophys. 29, 1093 – 1099. doi: 10.5194/angeo-29-1093-2011. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kleint, L., Shapiro, A.I., Berdyugina, S.V., Bianda, M.: 2011, Solar turbulent magnetic fields: Non-LTE modeling of the Hanle effect in the C2 molecule. Astron. Astrophys. 536, 47. ADS: 2011A%26A...536A..47K. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Koesterke, L., Allende Prieto, C., Lambert, D.L.: 2008, Center-to-limb variation of solar three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. Astrophys. J. 680, 764 – 773. doi: 10.1086/587471. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Krivova, N.A., Solanki, S.K.: 2008, Models of solar irradiance variations: Current status. J. Astrophys. Astron. 29, 151 – 158. doi: 10.1007/s12036-008-0018-x. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krivova, N.A., Solanki, S.K., Unruh, Y.C.: 2011, Towards a long-term record of solar total and spectral irradiance. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 73, 223 – 234. doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2009.11.013. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krivova, N.A., Solanki, S.K., Fligge, M., Unruh, Y.C.: 2003, Reconstruction of solar irradiance variations in cycle 23: Is solar surface magnetism the cause? Astron. Astrophys. 399, 1 – 4. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030029. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kurucz, R.L.: 2005, Including all the lines. Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. Suppl. 8, 86. ADS: 2005MSAIS...8...86K. ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. McClintock, W.E., Snow, M., Woods, T.N.: 2005, Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment II (SOLSTICE II): Pre-launch and on-orbit calibrations. Solar Phys. 230, 259 – 294. doi: 10.1007/s11207-005-1585-5. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Neckel, H.: 1996, On the wavelength dependency of solar limb darkening (λλ303 to 1099 nm). Solar Phys. 167, 9 – 23. ADS: 1996SoPh..167....9N, doi: 10.1007/BF00146325. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Neckel, H.: 2005, Analytical reference functions F(λ) for the Sun’s limb darkening and its absolute continuum intensities (λλ300 to 1100 m). Solar Phys. 229, 13 – 33. doi: 10.1007/s11207-005-4081-z. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Neckel, H., Labs, D.: 1994, Solar limb darkening 1986 – 1990 (λλ303 to 1099 nm). Solar Phys. 153, 91. ADS: 1994SoPh..153...91N, doi: 10.1007/BF00712494. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rottman, G.: 2005, The SORCE mission. Solar Phys. 230, 7 – 25. doi: 10.1007/s11207-005-8112-6. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rozanov, E., Egorova, T., Schmutz, W., Peter, T.: 2006, Simulation of the stratospheric ozone and temperature response to the solar irradiance variability during Sun rotation cycle. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 68, 2203 – 2213. doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2006.09.004. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schmutz, W., Hamann, W.-R., Wessolowski, U.: 1989, Spectral analysis of 30 Wolf–Rayet stars. Astron. Astrophys. 210, 236 – 248. ADS: 1989A%26A...210..236S. ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Shapiro, A.I., Schmutz, W., Schoell, M., Haberreiter, M., Rozanov, E.: 2010, NLTE solar irradiance modeling with the COSI code. Astron. Astrophys. 517, A48. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913987. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shapiro, A.I., Schmutz, W., Rozanov, E., Schoell, M., Haberreiter, M., Shapiro, A.V., Nyeki, S.: 2011a, A new approach to the long-term reconstruction of the solar irradiance leads to large historical solar forcing. Astron. Astrophys. 529, A67. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201016173. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shapiro, A.I., Fluri, D.M., Berdyugina, S.V., Bianda, M., Ramelli, R.: 2011b, NLTE modeling of Stokes vector center-to-limb variations in the CN violet system. Astron. Astrophys. 529, A139. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/200811299. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shapiro, A.V., Rozanov, E., Egorova, T., Shapiro, A.I., Peter, T., Schmutz, W.: 2011c, Sensitivity of the Earth’s middle atmosphere to short-term solar variability and its dependence on the choice of solar irradiance data set. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 73, 348 – 355. doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2010.02.011. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shapiro, A.V., Shapiro, A.I., Schmutz, W., Dominique, M., Dammasch, I., Wehrli, C.: 2011d, Solar rotational cycle as observed by LYRA. Solar Phys. this issue. Google Scholar
  42. Shchukina, N., Trujillo Bueno, J.: 2001, The iron line formation problem in three-dimensional hydrodynamic models of solar-like photospheres. Astrophys. J. 550, 970 – 990. doi: 10.1086/319789. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Short, C.I., Hauschildt, P.H.: 2005, A non-LTE line-blanketed model of a solar-type star. Astrophys. J. 618, 926 – 938. doi: 10.1086/426128. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Short, C.I., Hauschildt, P.H.: 2009, Non-LTE modeling of the near-ultraviolet band of late-type stars. Astrophys. J. 691, 1634 – 1647. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1634. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sumod, S.G., Pant, T.K., Vineeth, C., Hossain, M.M., Antonita, M.: 2011, Response of the tropical mesopause to the longest annular solar eclipse of this millennium. J. Geophys. Res. 116, A06317. doi: 10.1029/2010JA016326. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thuillier, G., Floyd, L., Woods, T.N., Cebula, R., Hilsenrath, E., Hersé, M., Labs, D.: 2004, Solar irradiance reference spectra. In: Pap, J.M., Fox, P., Frohlich, C., Hudson, H.S., Kuhn, J., McCormack, J., North, G., Sprigg, W., Wu, S.T., (eds.) Solar Variability and its Effects on Climate, Washington Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 141, 171. ADS: 2004GMS...141..171T. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thuillier, G., Claudel, J., Djafer, D., Haberreiter, M., Mein, N., Melo, S.M.L., Schmutz, W., Shapiro, A., Short, C.I., Sofia, S.: 2011, The shape of the solar limb: Models and observations. Solar Phys. 268, 125 – 149. doi: 10.1007/s11207-010-9664-7. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Uitenbroek, H., Criscuoli, S.: 2011, Why one-dimensional models fail in the diagnosis of average spectra from inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres. Astrophys. J. 736, 69. doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/736/1/69. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Unruh, Y.C., Solanki, S.K., Fligge, M.: 1999, The spectral dependence of facular contrast and solar irradiance variations. Astron. Astrophys. 345, 635 – 642. ADS: 1999A%26A...345..635U. ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Vieira, L.E.A., Solanki, S.K., Krivova, N.A., Usoskin, I.: 2011, Evolution of the solar irradiance during the Holocene. Astron. Astrophys. 531, A6. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015843. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. I. Shapiro
    • 1
    Email author
  • W. Schmutz
    • 1
  • M. Dominique
    • 2
  • A. V. Shapiro
    • 1
  1. 1.Physikalisch-Meteorologishes Observatorium DavosWorld Radiation CenterDavos DorfSwitzerland
  2. 2.Royal Observatory of BelgiumBrusselBelgium

Personalised recommendations