Solar Physics

, Volume 281, Issue 1, pp 369–389 | Cite as

Connecting Coronal Mass Ejections and Magnetic Clouds: A Case Study Using an Event from 22 June 2009

  • B. E. WoodEmail author
  • A. P. Rouillard
  • C. Möstl
  • K. Battams
  • N. P. Savani
  • K. Marubashi
  • R. A. Howard
  • D. G. Socker


On 27 June 2009 the Wind and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft near Earth detected a magnetic cloud (MC). The MC can be traced back to a slow coronal mass ejection (CME) launched from the Sun on 22 June 2009 but this connection relies entirely on heliospheric imaging of the Sun–Earth line from the two STEREO spacecraft, illustrating the value of such imaging. The STEREO and SOHO/LASCO views of this event collectively suggest strongly that the CME has the shape of a magnetic flux rope. The arrival times of two density peaks at ACE are consistent with the expected arrival times of the front and back of the flux rope observed in the images, and the velocity of the CME seen by ACE is also consistent with the STEREO measurements. However, the complex nature of the MC signature of this event complicates attempts to compare the flux rope orientations inferred from the imaging and in situ data. Various analyses of the in situ data, performed using both force-free and Grad–Shafranov approaches to MC modeling, yield a wide range of flux rope orientations depending on the type of analysis and on the exact time interval used. The best reproduction of the image-inferred orientation occurs when the first third of the MC time interval is ignored.


Coronal mass ejections, initiation and propagation Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary 



This work has been supported by NASA award NNH10AN83I to the Naval Research Laboratory. The STEREO/SECCHI data are produced by a consortium of NRL (US), LMSAL (US), NASA/GSFC (US), RAL (UK), UBHAM (UK), MPS (Germany), CSL (Belgium), IOTA (France), and IAS (France). In addition to funding by NASA, NRL also received support from the USAF Space Test Program and ONR. C.M. was supported by a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme, by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P20145-N16, and by funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n263252 [COMESEP].

Supplementary material

11207_2012_36_MOESM1_ESM.mpg (3 mb)
(MPG 3.0 MB)

(MPG 16.9 MB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. E. Wood
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. P. Rouillard
    • 2
    • 3
  • C. Möstl
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • K. Battams
    • 1
  • N. P. Savani
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
  • K. Marubashi
    • 8
  • R. A. Howard
    • 1
  • D. G. Socker
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Science DivisionNaval Research LaboratoryWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA
  3. 3.IRAPToulouse Cedex 4France
  4. 4.Space Science LaboratoryUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  5. 5.Kanzelhöhe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of PhysicsUniversity of GrazGrazAustria
  6. 6.Space Research InstituteAustrian Academy of SciencesGrazAustria
  7. 7.Solar-Terrestrial Environment LaboratoryNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  8. 8.UCARBoulderUSA
  9. 9.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA

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