Solar Physics

, Volume 271, Issue 1–2, pp 183–195 | Cite as

Evolution of Solar and Geomagnetic Activity Indices, and Their Relationship: 1960 – 2001

  • G. VerbanacEmail author
  • M. Mandea
  • B. Vršnak
  • S. Sentic


We employ annually averaged solar and geomagnetic activity indices for the period 1960 – 2001 to analyze the relationship between different measures of solar activity as well as the relationship between solar activity and various aspects of geomagnetic activity. In particular, to quantify the solar activity we use the sunspot number R s, group sunspot number R g, cumulative sunspot area Cum, solar radio flux F10.7, and interplanetary magnetic field strength IMF. For the geomagnetic activity we employ global indices Ap, Dst and Dcx, as well as the regional geomagnetic index RES, specifically estimated for the European region. In the paper we present the relative evolution of these indices and quantify the correlations between them. Variations have been found in: i) time lag between the solar and geomagnetic indices; ii) relative amplitude of the geomagnetic and solar activity peaks; iii) dual-peak distribution in some of solar and geomagnetic indices. The behavior of geomagnetic indices is correlated the best with IMF variations. Interestingly, among geomagnetic indices, RES shows the highest degree of correlation with solar indices.


Cross-correlation Geoeffectiveness Geomagnetic global and regional activity indices Solar activity indices 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Université Paris Diderot—Institut de Physique du Globe de ParisParisFrance
  3. 3.Faculty of GeodesyHvar ObservatoryZagrebCroatia
  4. 4.Department of Civil Engineering and Geological SciencesUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA

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