On the Analysis of the Complex Forbush Decreases of January 2005
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In this work an analysis of a series of complex cosmic ray events that occurred between 17 January 2005 and 23 January 2005 using solar, interplanetary and ground based cosmic ray data is being performed. The investigated period was characterized both by significant galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar cosmic ray (SCR) variations with highlighted cases such as the noticeable series of Forbush effects (FEs) from 17 January 2005 to 20 January 2005, the Forbush decrease (FD) on 21 January 2005 and the ground level enhancement (GLE) of the cosmic ray counter measurements on 20 January 2005. The analysis is focusing on the aforementioned FE cases, with special attention drawn on the 21 January 2005, FD event, which demonstrated several exceptional features testifying its uniqueness. Data from the ACE spacecraft, together with GOES X-ray recordings and LASCO CME coronagraph images were used in conjunction to the ground based recordings of the Worldwide Neutron Monitor Network, the interplanetary data of OMNI database and the geomagnetic activity manifestations denoted by K p and D st indices. More than that, cosmic ray characteristics as density, anisotropy and density gradients were also calculated. The results illustrate the state of the interplanetary space that cosmic rays crossed and their corresponding modulation with respect to the multiple extreme solar events of this period. In addition, the western location of the 21 January 2005 solar source indicates a new cosmic ray feature, which connects the position of the solar source to the cosmic ray anisotropy variations. In the future, this feature could serve as an indicator of the solar source and can prove to be a valuable asset, especially when satellite data are unavailable.
KeywordsCosmic rays Coronal mass ejections Forbush decreases Interplanetary coronal mass ejections Magnetic clouds
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