Solar Physics

, Volume 264, Issue 1, pp 189–237 | Cite as

Near-Earth Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections During Solar Cycle 23 (1996 – 2009): Catalog and Summary of Properties

  • I. G. RichardsonEmail author
  • H. V. Cane


In a previous study (Cane and Richardson, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A4), SSH6-1, 2003), we investigated the occurrence of interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the near-Earth solar wind during 1996 – 2002, corresponding to the increasing and maximum phases of solar cycle 23, and provided a “comprehensive” catalog of these events. In this paper, we present a revised and updated catalog of the ≈300 near-Earth ICMEs in 1996 – 2009, encompassing the complete cycle 23, and summarize their basic properties and geomagnetic effects. In particular, solar wind composition and charge state observations are now considered when identifying the ICMEs. In general, these additional data confirm the earlier identifications based predominantly on other solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters. However, the boundaries of ICME-like plasma based on charge state/composition data may deviate significantly from those based on conventional plasma/magnetic field parameters. Furthermore, the much studied “magnetic clouds”, with flux-rope-like magnetic field configurations, may form just a substructure of the total ICME interval.


Coronal mass ejections Interplanetary coronal mass ejections Interplanetary magnetic field Magnetic clouds Solar wind plasma 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aellig, M.R., Lazarus, A.J., Steinberg, J.T.: 2001, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2767. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Bochsler, P.: 2000, Rev. Geophys. 38, 247. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Bothmer, V., Schwenn, R.: 1998, Ann. Geophys. 16, 1. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Borrini, G., Gosling, J.T., Bame, S.J., Feldman, W.C.: 1982, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 7370. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Burlaga, L.F., Plunkett, S.P., St. Cyr, O.C.: 2002, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1266. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burlaga, L., Fitzenreiter, R., Lepping, R., Ogilvie, K., Szabo, A., Lazarus, A., et al.: 1998, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 227. ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Burlaga, L.F., Skoug, R.M., Smith, C.W., Webb, D.F., Zurbuchen, T.H., Reinard, A.: 2001, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20957. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Cane, H.V.: 1988, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Cane, H.V.: 2000, Space Sci. Rev. 93, 55. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Cane, H.V., Lario, D.: 2006, Space Sci. Rev. 123, 45. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Cane, H.V., Richardson, I.G.: 2003, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A4), SSH6-1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cane, H.V., Reames, D.V., von Rosenvinge, T.T.: 1988, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9555. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Cane, H.V., Richardson, I.G., St. Cyr, O.C.: 2000, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3591. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Cane, H.V., Richardson, I.G., von Rosenvinge, T.T.: 2010, J. Geophys. Res. doi: 10.1029/2009JA014848. Google Scholar
  15. Cane, H.V., Erickson, W.C., Prestage, N.P.: 2002, J. Geophys. Res. 107(A10), SSH14-1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cane, H.V., Richardson, I.G., von Rosenvinge, T.T., Wibberenz, G.: 1994, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 21429. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Cane, H.V., Mewaldt, R.A., Cohen, C.M.S., von Rosenvinge, T.T.: 2006, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A06S90. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dasso, S., Mandrini, C.H., Schmieder, B., Cremades, H., Cid, C., Cerrato, Y., et al.: 2009, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A02109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Démoulin, P.: 2010, In: Maksimovic, M., Issautier, K., Meyer-Vernet, N., Moncuquet, M., Pantellini, F. (eds.) Twelfth International Solar Wind Conference, AIP Conf. Proc. 1216, 329. Google Scholar
  20. Démoulin, P., Nakwacki, M.S., Dasso, S., Mandrini, C.H.: 2008, Solar Phys. 250, 347. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Dimitropoulou, M., Moussas, X., Strintzi, D.: 2008, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 386, 2278. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Echer, E., Gonzalez, W.D., Tsurutani, B.T., Gonzalez, A.L.C.: 2008, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A05221. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forsyth, R.J., Bothmer, V., Cid, C., Crooker, N.U., Horbury, T.S., Kecskemety, K., et al.: 2006, Space Sci. Rev. 123, 383. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Gloeckler, G., Cain, J., Ipavich, F.M., Tums, E.O., Bedini, P., Fisk, L.A., et al.: 1998, Space Sci. Rev. 86, 497. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Gloeckler, G., Fisk, L.A., Hefti, S., Schwadron, N.A., Zurbuchen, T.H., Ipavich, F.M., Geiss, J., Bochsler, P., Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.: 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 157. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Gopalswamy, N.: 2006, Space Sci. Rev. 124, 145. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Gopalswamy, N., Lara, A., Lepping, R.P., Kaiser, M.L., Berdichevsky, D., St. Cyr, O.C.: 2000, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 145. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Gopalswamy, N., Lara, A., Yashiro, S., Kaiser, M.L., Howard, R.A.: 2001, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 29207. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Gosling, J.T.: 1990, In: Russell, C. T., Priest, E. R., Lee, L. C. (eds.) Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes, AGU Geophys. Monogr. 58, 343. Google Scholar
  30. Gosling, J.T.: 2000, In: Dingus, B. L., Kieda, D., Salamon, M. (eds.) Proc. 26th Int. Cosmic Ray Conf., AIP Conf. Proc. 516, 59. Google Scholar
  31. Gosling, J.T., Pizzo, V., Bame, S.J.: 1973, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 2001. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Gosling, J.T., Asbridge, J.R., Bame, S.J., Feldman, W.C., Zwickl, R.D.: 1980, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 3431. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Gosling, J.T., Baker, D.N., Bame, S.J., Feldman, W.C., Zwickl, R.D., Smith, E.J.: 1987a, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8519. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Gosling, J.T., Thomsen, M.F., Bame, S.J., Zwickl, R.D.: 1987b, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 12399. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Gulisano, A.M., Démoulin, P., Dasso, S., Ruiz, M.E., Marsch, E.: 2010, Astron. Astrophys. 509, A39. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Hirshberg, J., Bame, S.J., Robbins, D.E.: 1972, Solar Phys. 23, 467. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Hundhausen, A.J., Gilbert, H.E., Bame, S.J.: 1968, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 5485. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Huttunen, K.E.J., Schwenn, R., Bothmer, V., Koskinen, H.E.J.: 2005, Ann. Geophys. 23, 625. ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Jian, L., Russell, C.T., Luhmann, J.G., Skoug, R.M.: 2006, Solar Phys. 239, 393. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Kasper, J., Stevens, M.L., Lazarus, A.J., Steinberg, J.T., Ogilvie, K.W.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 660, 901. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Klecker, B., Kunow, H., Cane, H.V., Dalla, S., Heber, B., Kecskemety, K., et al.: 2006, Space Sci. Rev. 123, 217. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Klein, L.W., Burlaga, L.F.: 1982, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 613. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Lean, J.L.: 1990, Astrophys. J. 363, 718. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Leitner, M., Farrugia, C.J., Möstl, C., Ogilvie, K.W., Galvin, A.B., Schwenn, R., Biernat, H.K.: 2007, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A06113. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lepri, S.T., Zurbuchen, T.H.: 2004, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A01112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lepri, S.T., Zurbuchen, T.H., Fisk, L.A., Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V., Gloeckler, G.: 2001, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 29231. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu, Y., Richardson, J.D., Belcher, J.W.: 2005, Planet. Space Sci. 53, 3. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu, C., Lee, J., Yurchyshyn, V., Deng, N., Cho, K., Karlický, M., Wang, H.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 669, 1372. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Lou, Y.Q.: 2000, Astrophys. J 540, 1102. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Malandraki, O.E., Lario, D., Lanzerotti, L.J., Sarris, E.T., Geranios, A., Tsiropoula, G.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A09S06. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McGuire, R.E., von Rosenvinge, T.T., McDonald, F.B.: 1986, Astrophys. J. 301, 938. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Michalek, G., Gopalswamy, N., Lara, A., Manoharan, P.K.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 423, 729. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Neugebauer, M., Goldstein, R.: 1997, In: Crooker, N., Joselyn, J.A., Feynman, J. (eds.) Coronal Mass Ejections, AGU Geophys. Monogr. 99, 245. Google Scholar
  54. Neugebauer, M., Goldstein, R., Goldstein, B.E.: 1997, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19743. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Owens, M.J., Cargill, P.J., Pagel, C., Siscoe, G.L., Crooker, N.U.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A01105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Owocki, S.P., Holzer, T.E., Hundhausen, A.J.: 1983, Astrophys. J. 275, 354. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Rakowski, C., Laming, J.M., Lepri, S.T.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 667, 602. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Reinard, A.: 2005, Astrophys. J. 620, 501. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Reinard, A.: 2008, Astrophys. J. 682, 1289. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Reinard, A.A., Zurbuchen, T.H., Fisk, L.A., Lepri, S.T., Skoug, R.M., Gloeckler, G.: 2001, In: Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F. (ed.) Solar and Galactic Composition, AIP Conf. Proc. 598, 139. Google Scholar
  61. Reisenfeld, D.B., Steinberg, J.T., Barraclough, B.L., Dors, E.E., Wiens, R.C., Neugebauer, M., Reinard, A., Zurbuchen, T.: 2003, In: Velli, M., Bruno, R., Malara, F. (eds.) Solar Wind Ten, AIP Conf. Proc. 679, 632. Google Scholar
  62. Reisenfeld, D.B., Burnett, D.S., Becker, R.H., Grimberg, A.G., Heber, V.S., Hohenberg, C.M., et al.: 2007, Space Sci. Rev. 130, 79. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. Richardson, I.G.: 1994, Astrophys. J. 420, 926. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Richardson, I.G.: 2004, Space Sci. Rev. 111, 267. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 1993, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 15295. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 1995, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23397. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 1996, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 27521. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2004a, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A09104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2004b, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L18804. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2005a, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L02104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2005b, In: Fleck, B., Zurbuchen, T.H., Lacoste, H. (eds.) Proceedings of Solar Wind 11/SOHO 16, Connecting Sun and Heliosphere, ESA SP-592, 755. Google Scholar
  72. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2010, In: Maksimovic, M., Issautier, K., Meyer-Vernet, N., Moncuquet, M., Pantellini, F. (eds.) Twelfth International Solar Wind Conference, AIP Conf. Proc. 1216, 683. Google Scholar
  73. Richardson, I.G., Reames, D.V.: 1993, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 85, 411. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Richardson, I.G., Zhang, J.: 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L06S07. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V., Wibberenz, G.: 1999, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 12549. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Richardson, I.G., Berdichevsky, D., Desch, M.D., Farrugia, C.J.: 2000, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3761. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V., Lepri, S.T., Zurbuchen, T.H., Gosling, J.T.: 2003a, In: Velli, M., Bruno, R., Malara, F. (eds.) Solar Wind Ten, AIP Conf. Proc. 679, 681. Google Scholar
  78. Richardson, J.D., Richardson, I.G., Kasper, J.C., Cane, H.V., Crooker, N.U., Lazarus, A.J.: 2003b, In: Wilson, A. (ed.) Solar Variability as an Input to the Earth’s Environment, International Solar Cycle Studies (ISCS) Symposium, ESA SP-535, 521. Google Scholar
  79. Richardson, I.G., Webb, D.F., Zhang, J., Berdichevsky, D.B., Biesecker, D.A., Kasper, J.C., et al.: 2006, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A07S09. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rieger, E., Share, G.H., Forrest, D.J., Kanbach, G., Reppin, C., Chupp, E.L.: 1984, Nature 312, 623. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Russell, C.T., Shinde, A.A.: 2005, Solar Phys. 229, 323. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  82. Russell, C.T., Shinde, A.A., Jian, L.: 2005, Adv. Space Res. 35, 2178. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Sanderson, T.R., Beeck, J., Marsden, R.G., Tranquille, C., Wenzel, K.-P., McKibben, R.B., Smith, E.J.: 1990, In: Proc. 21st Int. Cosmic Ray Conf. 6, 251. Google Scholar
  84. Schwenn, R., Rosenbauer, H., Muehlhaeuser, K.-H.: 1980, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 201. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Schwenn, R., Lago, A. Dal, Huttunen, E., Gonzalez, W.D.: 2005, Ann. Geophys. 23, 1033. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Shodhan, S., Crooker, N.U., Kahler, S.W., Fitzenreiter, R.J., Larson, D.E., Lepping, R.P., Siscoe, G.L., Gosling, J.T.: 2000, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 27261. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  87. Skoug, R.M., Bame, S.J., Feldman, W.C., Gosling, J.T., McComas, D.J., Steinberg, J.T., et al.: 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 161. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Torrence, C., Compo, G.P.: 1998, Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 79, 61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vršnak, B., Gopalswamy, N.: 2002, J. Geophys. Res. 107(A2), SSH2-1. Google Scholar
  90. Wang, C., Du, D., Richardson, J.D.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A10107. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  91. Wang, Y.M., Ye, P.Z., Wang, S., Zhou, G.P., Wang, J.X.: 2002, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1340. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wibberenz, G., Richardson, I.G., Cane, H.V.: 2002, J. Geophys. Res. 107(A11), SSH5-1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wu, C.-C., Lepping, R.P.: 2007, Solar Phys. 242, 159. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  94. Yermolaev, Yu.I., Zhuravlev, V.I., Zastenker, G.N., Kogan, V.T., Koshevenko, B.V., Pavlov, A.K., Soboleva, E.V., Chichagov, Yu.V.: 1989, Cosm. Res. 27, 614. Google Scholar
  95. Yurchyshyn, V., Liu, C., Abramenko, V., Krall, J.: 2006, Solar Phys. 239, 317. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Zaqarashvili, T.V., Carbonell, M., Oliver, R., Ballester, J.L.: 2010, Astrophys. J. 709, 749. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhang, J., Richardson, I.G., Webb, D.F.: 2008, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A00A12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zhang, J., Poomvises, W., Richardson, I.G.: 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zhang, J., Richardson, I.G., Webb, D.F., Gopalswamy, N., Huttunen, E., Kasper, J., et al.: 2007, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A10102. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  100. Zurbuchen, T.H., Richardson, I.G.: 2006, Space Sci. Rev. 123, 31. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Zurbuchen, T.H., Fisk, L.A., Lepri, S.T., von Steiger, R.: 2003, In: Velli, M., Bruno, R., Malara, F. (eds.) Solar Wind Ten, AIP Conf. Proc. 679, 604. Google Scholar
  102. Zwickl, R.D., Asbridge, J.R., Bame, S.J., Feldman, W.C., Gosling, J.T.: 1982, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 7379. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  103. Zwickl, R.D., Asbridge, J.R., Bame, S.J., Feldman, W.C., Gosling, J.T., Smith, E.J.: 1983, In: Neugebauer, M. (ed.) Solar Wind Five, ASP Conf. Ser. 2280, 711. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Code 661NASA/Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  2. 2.CRESST and Department of AstronomyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  3. 3.School of Mathematics and PhysicsUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations