Solar Physics

, Volume 256, Issue 1–2, pp 149–166 | Cite as

Reconstructing the 3-D Trajectories of CMEs in the Inner Heliosphere

  • Shane A. Maloney
  • Peter T. Gallagher
  • R. T. James McAteer


A method for the full three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the trajectories of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) data is presented. Four CMEs that were simultaneously observed by the inner and outer coronagraphs (COR1 and 2) of the Ahead and Behind STEREO satellites were analysed. These observations were used to derive CME trajectories in 3-D out to ∼ 15 R . The reconstructions using COR1/2 data support a radial propagation model. Assuming pseudo-radial propagation at large distances from the Sun (15 – 240 R ), the CME positions were extrapolated into the Heliospheric Imager (HI) field-of-view. We estimated the CME velocities in the different fields-of-view. It was found that CMEs slower than the solar wind were accelerated, while CMEs faster than the solar wind were decelerated, with both tending to the solar wind velocity.


Coronal mass ejections, initiation and propagation Coronal mass ejections, interplanetary 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amari, T., Luciani, J.F., Aly, J.J., Tagger, M.: 1996, Astron. Astrophys. 306, 913. ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Amari, T., Luciani, J.F., Mikic, Z., Linker, J.: 2000, Astrophys. J. 529, L49. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Antiochos, S.K., DeVore, C.R., Klimchuk, J.A.: 1999, Astrophys. J. 510, 485. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Aschwanden, M.J., Wülser, J.P., Nitta, N.V., Lemen, J.R.: 2008, Astrophys. J. 679, 827. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Bemporad, A., Poletto, G., Romoli, M., Suess, S.T.: 2003, In: Solar Variability as an Input to the Earth’s Environment, International Solar Cycle Studies (ISCS) Symposium 535, ESA, Noordwijk, 567. ISBN: 92-9092-845-X. Google Scholar
  6. Brown, D.S., Bewsher, D., Eyles, C.J.: 2008, Solar Phys. 254, 185. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Brueckner, G.E., Howard, R.A., Koomen, M.J., Korendyke, C.M., Michels, D.J., Moses, J.D., Socker, D.G., Dere, K.P., Lamy, P.L., Llebaria, A., Bout, M.V., Schwenn, R., Simnett, G.M., Bedford, D.K., Eyles, C.J.: 1995, Solar Phys. 162, 357. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Calabretta, M.R., Greisen, E.W.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 395, 1077. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Cargill, P.J.: 2004, Solar Phys. 221, 135. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, J.: 1996, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 27499. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Eyles, C.J., Harrison, R.A., Davis, C.J., Waltham, N.R., Shaughnessy, B.M., Mapson-Menard, H.C.A., Bewsher, D., Crothers, S.R., Davies, J.A., Simnett, G.M., Howard, R.A., Moses, J.D., Newmark, J.S., Socker, D.G., Halain, J.P., Defise, J.M., Mazy, E., Rochus, P.: 2008, Solar Phys. 254, 387. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Forbes, T.G., Linker, J.A., Chen, J., Cid, C., Kóta, J., Lee, M.A., Mann, G., Mikić, Z., Potgieter, M.S., Schmidt, J.M., Siscoe, G.L., Vainio, R., Antiochos, S.K., Riley, P.: 2006, Space Sci. Rev. 123, 251. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Freeland, S.L., Handy, B.N.: 1998, Solar Phys. 182, 497. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Gopalswamy, N.: 2004, In: Poletto, G. (ed.) The Sun and the Heliosphere as an Integrated System, INAF – Osservatorio di Arcetri 317, 201. Google Scholar
  15. Gopalswamy, N.: 2007, Space Sci. Rev. 124, 145. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Gopalswamy, N., Yashiro, S., Liu, Y., Michalek, G., Vourlidas, A., Kaiser, M.L., Howard, R.A.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res. 110, 9. Google Scholar
  17. Howard, R.A., Moses, J.D., Vourlidas, A., Newmark, J.S., Socker, D.G., Plunkett, S.P., Korendyke, C.M., Cook, J.W., Hurley, A., Davila, J.M., Thompson, W.T., St Cyr, O.C., Mentzell, E., Mehalick, K., Lemen, J.R., Wuelser, J.P., Duncan, D.W., Tarbell, T.D., Wolfson, C.J., Moore, A., Harrison, R.A., Waltham, N.R., Lang, J., Davis, C.J., Eyles, C.J., Mapson-Menard, H., Simnett, G.M., Halain, J.P., Defise, J.M., Mazy, E., Rochus, P., Mercier, R., Ravet, M.F., Delmotte, F., Auchere, F., Delaboudiniere, J.P., Bothmer, V., Deutsch, W., Wang, D., Rich, N., Cooper, S., Stephens, V., Maahs, G., Baugh, R., McMullin, D., Carter, T.: 2008, Space Sci. Rev. 136, 67. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Howard, T.A., Tappin, S.J.: 2008, Solar Phys. 252, 373. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Howard, T.A., Nandy, D., Koepke, A.C.: 2008, J. Geophys. Res. 113(A1), 12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Howard, T.A., Fry, C.D., Johnston, J.C., Webb, D.F.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 667, 610. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Inhester, B.: 2006, arXiv:astro-ph/0612649.
  22. Jackson, B.V., Buffington, A., Hick, P.P., Altrock, R.C., Figueroa, S., Holladay, P.E., Johnston, J.C., Kahler, S.W., Mozer, J.B., Price, S., Radick, R.R., Sagalyn, R., Sinclair, D., Simnett, G.M., Eyles, C.J., Cooke, M.P., Tappin, S.J., Kuchar, T., Mizuno, D., Webb, D.F., Anderson, P.A., Keil, S.L., Gold, R.E., Waltham, N.R.: 2004, Solar Phys. 225, 177. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Krall, J., Chen, J., Duffin, R.T., Howard, R.A., Thompson, B.J.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 562, 1045. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Lario, D., Decker, R.B., Livi, S., Krimigis, S.M., Roelof, E.C., Russell, C.T., Fry, C.D.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res. 110, 9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lindsay, G.M., Luhmann, J.G., Russell, C.T., Gosling, J.T.: 1999, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 12515. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Lynch, B.J., Antiochos, S.K., DeVore, C.R., Luhmann, J.G., Zurbuchen, T.H.: 2008, Astrophys. J. 683, 1192. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Mikic, Z., Linker, J.A.: 1994, Astrophys. J. 430, 898. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Owens, M., Cargill, P.: 2004, Ann. Geophys. 22, 661. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pick, M., Forbes, T.G., Mann, G., Cane, H.V., Chen, J., Ciaravella, A., Cremades, H., Howard, R.A., Hudson, H.S., Klassen, A., Klein, K.L., Lee, M.A., Linker, J.A., Maia, D., Mikic, Z., Raymond, J.C., Reiner, M.J., Simnett, G.M., Srivastava, N., Tripathi, D., Vainio, R., Vourlidas, A., Zhang, J., Zurbuchen, T.H., Sheeley, N.R., Marqué, C.: 2006, Space Sci. Rev. 123, 341. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Reiner, M.J., Fainberg, J., Kaiser, M.L., Stone, R.G.: 1998, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1923. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Reiner, M.J., Goetz, K., Fainberg, J., Kaiser, M., Cecconi, B., Makisimovic, M., Hoang, S., Bougeret, J., Bale, S.D.: 2007, In: AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, SH42A-02. Google Scholar
  32. Richardson, J.D., Wang, C., Kasper, J.C., Liu, Y.: 2005, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, 3. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tappin, S.J.: 2006, Solar Phys. 233(2), 233. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Thompson, W.T.: 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 449, 791. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Vourlidas, A., Buzasi, D., Howard, R.A., Esfandiari, E.: 2002, In: Solar Variability: From Core to Outer Frontiers, The 10th European Solar Physics Meeting 506, 91. Google Scholar
  36. Wang, C.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res. 110(A10), 7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang, J., Dere, K.P., Howard, R.A., Kundu, M.R., White, S.M.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 559, 452. doi: 10.1086/322405. CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shane A. Maloney
    • 1
  • Peter T. Gallagher
    • 1
  • R. T. James McAteer
    • 1
  1. 1.School of PhysicsTrinity College DublinDublin 2Ireland

Personalised recommendations