Advertisement

Solar Physics

, 253:3 | Cite as

Radio Emission of Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

Invited Review
  • A. NindosEmail author
  • H. Aurass
  • K.-L. Klein
  • G. Trottet
RADIO PHYSICS AND THE FLARE-CME RELATIONSHIP

Abstract

We review recent progress on our understanding of radio emission from solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with emphasis on those aspects of the subject that help us address questions about energy release and its properties, the configuration of flare – CME source regions, coronal shocks, particle acceleration and transport, and the origin of solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Radio emission from electron beams can provide information about the electron acceleration process, the location of injection of electrons in the corona, and the properties of the ambient coronal structures. Mildly relativistic electrons gyrating in the magnetic fields of flaring loops produce radio emission via the gyrosynchrotron mechanism, which provides constraints on the magnetic field and the properties of energetic electrons. CME detection at radio wavelengths tracks the eruption from its early phase and reveals the participation of a multitude of loops of widely differing scale. Both flares and CMEs can ignite shock waves and radio observations offer the most robust tool to study them. The incorporation of radio data into the study of SEP events reveals that a clear-cut distinction between flare-related and CME-related SEP events is difficult to establish.

Keywords

Sun Flares Coronal mass ejections Radio radiation Corona 

References

  1. Akimov, V.V., Ambrož, P., Belov, A.V., Berlicki, A., Chertok, I.M., Karlický, M., et al.: 1996, Solar Phys. 166, 107. ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Alissandrakis, C.E.: 1986, Solar Phys. 104, 207. ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Alissandrakis, C.E., Preka-Papadema, P.: 1984, Astron. Astrophys. 139, 507. ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Alissandrakis, C.E., Nindos, A., Kundu, M.R.: 1993, Solar Phys. 147, 343. ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Alissandrakis, C.E., Schadee, A., Kundu, M.R.: 1988, Astron. Astrophys. 195, 290. ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Alissandrakis, C.E., Nindos, A., Hilaris, A., Caroublos, C., Arthemis Team: 2005, In: Danesy, D., Poedts, S., De Groof, A., Andries, J. (eds.) The Dynamic Sun: Challenges for Theory and Observations SP-600, ESA, Noordwijk, 106.1. Google Scholar
  7. Altyntsev, A.T., Grechnev, V.V., Nakajima, H., Fujiki, K., Nishio, M., Prosovetsky, D.V.: 1999, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 135, 415. ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Altyntsev, A.T., Kuznetsov, A.A., Meshalkina, N.S., Rudenko, G.V., Yan, Y.: 2005, Astron. Astrophys. 431, 1037. ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Antiochos, S.K., DeVore, C.R., Klimchuk, J.A.: 1999, Astrophys. J. 510, 485. ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Arzner, K., Benz, A.O.: 2005, Solar Phys. 231, 117. ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Asai, A., Nakajima, H., Shimojo, M., White, S.M., Hudson, H.S., Lin, R.P.: 2006, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 58, 1. ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Aschwanden, M.J.: 2002, Space Sci. Rev. 101, 1. ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Aschwanden, M.J., Benz, A.O.: 1997, Astrophys. J. 480, 825. ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Aschwanden, M.J., Güdel, M.: 1992, Astrophys. J. 401, 736. ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Aschwanden, M.J., Benz, A.O., Montello, M.L.: 1994, Astrophys. J. 431, 432. ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Aschwanden, M.J., Benz, A.O., Schwartz, R.A.: 1993, Astrophys. J. 417, 790. ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Aschwanden, M.J., Wiehl, H.J., Benz, A.O., Kane, S.R.: 1985, Solar Phys. 97, 159. ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Aschwanden, M.J., Bastian, T.S., Benz, A.O., Brosius, J.: 1992, Astrophys. J. 391, 380. ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Aschwanden, M.J., Benz, A.O., Dennis, B.R., Schwartz, R.A.: 1995, Astrophys. J. 455, 347. ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Attrill, G.D.R., Harra, L.K., van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., Démoulin, P.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 656, 101. ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Aulanier, G., DeLuca, E.E., Antiochos, S.K., McMullen, R.A., Golub, L.: 2000, Astrophys. J. 540, 1126. ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Aurass, H., Klein, K.-L.: 1997, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 123, 279. ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Aurass, H., Mann, G.: 2004, Astrophys. J. 615, 526. ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Aurass, H., Hofmann, A., Urbarz, H.-W.: 1998, Astron. Astrophys. 334, 289. ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Aurass, H., Klein, K.-L., Martens, P.C.H.: 1994, Solar Phys. 155, 203. ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Aurass, H., Rausche, G., Mann, G.: 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 471, L37. zbMATHADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Aurass, H., Vršnak, B., Mann, G.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 384, 273. ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Aurass, H., Vourlidas, A., Andrews, M.D., Thompson, B.J., Mann, G.: 1999, Astrophys. J. 511, 451. ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Aurass, H., Klein, K.-L., Zlotnik, E.Ya., Zaitsev, V.V.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 410, 1001. ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Aurass, H., Rausche, G., Mann, G., Hofmann, A.: 2005, Astron. Astrophys. 435, 1137. ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Aurass, H., Mann, G., Rausche, G., Warmuth, A.: 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 457, 681. ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Bárta, M., Karlický, M.: 2001, Astron. Astrophys. 379, 1045. ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Bárta, M., Karlický, M.: 2005, Astrophys. J. 631, 612. ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Bárta, M., Karlický, M.: 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 450, 359. ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Bale, S.D., Reiner, M.J., Bougeret, J.-L., Kaiser, M.L., Krucker, S., Larson, D.E., Lin, R.P.: 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1573. ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Bastian, T.S.: 1994, Astrophys. J. 426, 774. ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Bastian, T.S., Benz, A.O., Gary, D.E.: 1998, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 36, 131. ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Bastian, T.S., Fleishman, G.D., Gary, D.E.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 666, 1256. ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Bastian, T.S., Pick, M., Kerdraon, A., Maia, D., Vourlidas, A.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 558, L65. ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Benz, A.O.: 1985, Solar Phys. 96, 357. ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Benz, A.O.: 1986, Solar Phys. 104, 99. ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Benz, A.O.: 1993, Plasma Astrophysics, Kinetic Processes in Solar and Stellar Coronae, Kluwer, Dordrecht. Google Scholar
  43. Benz, A.O., Jaeggi, M., Zlobec, P.: 1982, Astron. Astrophys. 109, 305. ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Benz, A.O., Saint-Hilaire, P., Vilmer, N.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 383, 678. ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Benz, A.O., Treumann, R., Vilmer, N., Mangeney, A., Pick, M., Raoult, A.: 1982, Astron. Astrophys. 108, 161. ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Benz, A.O., Barrow, C.H., Dennis, B.R., Pick, M., Raoult, A., Simnett, G.: 1983, Solar Phys. 83, 267. ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Benz, A.O., Grigis, P.C., Csillaghy, A., Saint-Hilaire, P.: 2005, Solar Phys. 226, 121. ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Bernold, T., Treumann, R.: 1983, Astrophys. J. 264, 677. ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Biesecker, D.A., Myers, D.C., Thompson, B.J., Hammer, D.M., Vourlidas, A.: 2002, Astrophys. J. 569, 1009. ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Bone, L., Brown, J.C., Fletcher, L., Veronig, A., White, S.: 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 466, 339. ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Bruggmann, G., Vilmer, N., Klein, K.-L., Kane, S.R.: 1994, Solar Phys. 149, 171. ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Cane, H.V.: 2003, Astrophys. J. 598, 1403. ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Cane, H.V., Erickson, W.C.: 2003, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1203. Google Scholar
  54. Cane, H.V., Erickson, W.C.: 2005, Astrophys. J. 623, 1180. ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Cane, H.V., Stone, R.G.: 1984, Astrophys. J. 282, 339. ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Cane, H.V., Erickson, W.C., Prestage, N.P.: 2002, J. Geophys. Res. A 107(10), 1315. ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Cane, H.V., Stone, R.G., Fainberg, J., Steinberg, J.L., Hoang, S., Stewart, R.D.: 1981, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 1285. ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Caroubalos, C., Poquérusse, M., Steinberg, J.-L.: 1974, Astron. Astrophys. 32, 255. ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Chernov, G.P., Yan, Y.H., Fu, Q.J.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 406, 1071. ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Chernov, G.P., Sych, R.A., Yan, Y., Fu, Q., Tan, C., Huang, G., Wang, D.Y., Wu, H.: 2006, Solar Phys. 237, 397. ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Cho, K.-S., Lee, J., Gary, D.E., Moon, Y.-J., Park, Y.D.: 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 461, 1121. ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Chertok, I.M., Kahler, S., Aurass, H., Gnezdilov, A.A.: 2001, Solar Phys. 202, 337. ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. Classen, H.T., Aurass, H.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 384, 1098. ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Classen, H.T., Mann, G., Klassen, A., Aurass, H.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 409, 309. ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Cliver, E.W., Webb, D.F., Howard, R.A.: 1999, Solar Phys. 187, 89. ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. Cliver, E.W., Kahler, S.W., Shea, M.A., Smart, D.F.: 1982, Astrophys. J. 260, 362. ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Cohen, M.: 1960, Astrophys. J. 131, 664. ADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  68. Dauphin, C., Vilmer, N., Krucker, S.: 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 455, 339. ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Delannée, C., Aulanier, G.: 1999, Solar Phys. 190, 107. ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Dulk, G.A., Leblanc, Y., Bastian, T.S., Bougeret, J.-L.: 2000, J. Geophys. Res. A 105(12), 27343. ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Duncan, R.A.: 1979, Solar Phys. 63, 389. ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. Elgarøy, E.O.: 1959, Nature, 184, 885. Google Scholar
  73. Elgarøy, E.O.: 1977, Solar Noise Storms, Pergamon, Oxford. Google Scholar
  74. Fainberg, J., Stone, R.G.: 1974, Space Sci. Rev. 16, 145. ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Fleishman, G.D., Melnikov, V.F.: 1998, Phys.-Usp. 41, 1157. ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Fleishman, G.D., Melnikov, V.F.: 2003a, Astrophys. J. 584, 1071. ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Fleishman, G.D., Melnikov, V.F.: 2003b, Astrophys. J. 587, 823. ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Fleishman, G.D., Gary, D.E., Nita, G.M.: 2003, Astrophys. J. 593, 571. ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Fleishman, G.D., Nita, G.M., Gary, D.E.: 2005, Astrophys. J. 620, 506. ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Forbes, T.G.: 1986, Astrophys. J. 305, 553. ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Gary, D.E.: 2006, In: Proceedings of Nobeyama Symposium 2004, 121. Google Scholar
  82. Gary, D.E., Dulk, G.A., House, L., Illing, R., Sawyer, C., Wagner, W.J., McLean, D.J., Hildner, E.: 1984, Astron. Astrophys. 134, 222. ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Ginzburg, V.L., Frank, I.M.: 1946, Z. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 16, 15. Google Scholar
  84. Goff, C.P., van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., Démoulin, P., Culhane, J.L., Matthews, S.A., Harra, L.K., et al.: 2007, Solar Phys. 240, 283. ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Gopalswamy, N.: 2006a, In: Proceedings of Nobeyama Symposium 2004, 81. Google Scholar
  86. Gopalswamy, N.: 2006b. In: Gopalswamy, N., Mewaldt, R., Torsti, J. (eds.) Solar Eruptions and Energetic Particles, Geophys. Mon. Ser. 165, AGU, Washington, 207. Google Scholar
  87. Gopalswamy, N., Hanaoka, Y.: 1998, Astrophys. J. 498, L179. ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Gopalswamy, N., Kundu, M.R.: 1992, Astrophys. J. 390, L37. ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. Gopalswamy, N., Kundu, M.R., Hanaoka, Y., Enome, S., Lemen, J.R., Akioka, M.: 1996, New Astron. 1, 207. ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. Gopalswamy, N., Kaiser, M.L., Lepping, R.P., Kahler, S.W., Ogilvie, K., Berdichevsky, D., Kondo, T., Isobe, T., Akioka, M.: 1998, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 307. ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. Gopalswamy, N., Shibasaki, K., Thompson, B.J., Gurman, J., DeForest, C.J.: 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 104, 9767. Google Scholar
  92. Gopalswamy, N., Lara, A., Kaiser, M.L., Bougeret, J.-L.: 2001a, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 25261. ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Gopalswamy, N., St. Syr, O.C., Kaiser, M.L., Yashiro, S.: 2001b, Solar Phys. 203, 149. ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. Gopalswamy, N., Yashiro, S., Kaiser, M.L., Howard, R.A., Bougeret, J.-L.: 2001c, Astrophys. J. 548, L91. ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. Gopalswamy, N., Shimojo, M., Lu, W., Yashiro, S., Shibasaki, K., Howard, R.A.: 2003, Astrophys. J. 586, 562. ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Grechnev, V.V., Kundu, M., Nindos, A.: 2006, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 58, 47. ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Grechnev, V.V., Uralov, A.M., Zandanov, V.G., Baranov, N.Y., Shibasaki, K.: 2006, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 58, 69. ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. Gurnett, D.A., Baumback, M.M., Rosenbauer, H.: 1978, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 616. ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Green, L.M., Matthews, S.A., van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., Harra, L.K., Culhane, J.L.: 2002, Solar Phys. 205, 325. ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. Haggerty, D.K., Roelof, E.C.: 2002, Astrophys. J. 579, 841. ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Hanaoka, Y.: 1996, Solar Phys. 165, 275. ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. Hanaoka, Y.: 1997, Solar Phys. 173, 319. ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. Hanaoka, Y.: 1999, In: Bastian, T.S., Gopalswamy, N., Shibasaki, K. (eds.) Proceedings of the Nobeyama Symposium, Kiyosato, Japan, 27–30 October 1998, 153. Google Scholar
  104. Hanaoka, Y., Kurokawa, H., Enome, S., Nakajima, H., Shibasaki, K., Nishio, M., et al.: 1994, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 46, 205. ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. Harrison, R.A.: 1995, Astron. Astrophys. 304, 585. ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. Hillaris, A., Alissandrakis, C.E., Bougeret, J.-L., Caroubalos, C.: 1999, Astron. Astrophys. 342, 271. ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. Hoang, S., Lacombe, C., MacDowall, R.J., Thejappa, G.: 2007, J. Geophys. Res. 112, 9102. Google Scholar
  108. Hori, K.: 2000, Astrophys. J. 543, 1011. ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. Hori, K., Culhane, J.L.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 382, 666. ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. Hudson, H.S., Kosugi, T., Nitta, N., Shimojo, M.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 561, L211. ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. Isliker, H.: 1996, Astron. Astrophys. 310, 672. ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. Isliker, H., Benz, A.O.: 1994, Astron. Astrophys. 104, 145. ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. Kahler, S.W., Hundhausen, A.J.: 1992, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 1619. ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. Kahler, S.W., Cliver, E.W., Cane, H.V.: 1989, Solar Phys. 120, 393. ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. Kahler, S.W., Aurass, H., Mann, G., Klassen, A.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 656, 567. ADSGoogle Scholar
  116. Kai, K.: 1970, Solar Phys. 11, 310. ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. Kai, K., Melrose, D.B., Suzuki, S.: 1985, In: McLean, D.J., Labrum, N.R. (eds.) Solar Radiophysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 415. Google Scholar
  118. Karlický, M.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 417, 325. ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. Karlický, M., Bárta, M.: 2007, Adv. Space Res. 39, 1415. ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. Karlický, M., Kosugi, T.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 1159. ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. Karlický, M., Fárník, F., Mészárosová, H.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 395, 677. ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. Kathiravan, C., Ramesh, R., Subramanian, K.R.: 2002, Astrophys. J. 567, L93. ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. Kaufmann, P., Raulin, J.-P., Correia, E., Costa, J.E.R., Giménez de Castro, C.G., Silva, A.V.R., et al.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 548, L95. ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. Kaufmann, P., Raulin, J.-P., Giménez de Castro, C.G., Levato, H., Gary, D.E., Costa, J.E.R., et al.: 2004, Astrophys. J. 603, L121. ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. Kaufmann, P., Trottet, G., Giménez de Castro, C., Raulin, J., Gary, D., Fernandez, G., et al.: 2007, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 210, 93.30. ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. Khan, J.I., Aurass, H.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 383, 1018. ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. Khan, J.I., Aurass, H.: 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 457, 319. ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. Khan, J.I., Vilmer, N., Saint-Hilaire, P., Benz, A.O.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 388, 363. ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. Klassen, A., Pohjolainen, S., Klein, K.-L.: 2003, Solar Phys. 218, 197. ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. Klassen, A., Aurass, H., Klein, K.-L., Hofmann, A., Mann, G.: 1999, Astron. Astrophys. 343, 287. ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. Klassen, A., Aurass, H., Mann, G., Thompson, B.J.: 2000, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 141, 357. ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. Klein, K.-L.: 1992, In: Marsch, E., Schwenn, R. (eds.) Solar Wind Seven, Pergamon, Oxford, 635. Google Scholar
  133. Klein, K.-L.: 2005, Adv. Space Res. 35, 1759. ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. Klein, K.-L., Trottet, G.: 1984, Astron. Astrophys. 141, 67. ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. Klein, K.-L., Chupp, E.L., Trottet, G., Magun, A., Dunphy, P.P., Rieger, E., Urpo, S.: 1999a, Astron. Astrophys. 348, 271. ADSGoogle Scholar
  136. Klein, K.-L., Khan, J.I., Vilmer, N., Delouis, J.-M., Aurass, H.: 1999b, Astron. Astrophys. 346, L53. ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. Klein, K.-L., Trottet, G., Lantos, P., Delaboudinière, J.-P.: 2001, Astron. Astrophys. 373, 1073. ADSGoogle Scholar
  138. Klein, K.-L., Schwartz, R.A., McTiernan, J.M., Trottet, G., Klassen, A., Lecacheux, A.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 410, 1001. Google Scholar
  139. Klein, K.-L., Krucker, S., Trottet, G., Hoang, S.: 2005, Astron. Astrophys. 431, 1047. ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. Kliem, B., Karlický, M., Benz, A.O.: 2000, Astron. Astrophys. 360, 715. ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. Kolomanski, S., Tomczak, M., Ronowicz, P., Karlický, M., Aurass, H.: 2007, Cent. Eur. Astrophys. Bull. 31, 125. ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. Krucker, S., Larson, D.E., Lin, R.P., Thompson, B.J.: 1999, Astrophys. J. 519, 864. ADSGoogle Scholar
  143. Kuijpers, J.: 1975, Solar Phys. 44, 173. ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. Kuijpers, J., van der Post, P., Slottje, C.: 1981, Astron. Astrophys. 103, 331. ADSGoogle Scholar
  145. Kundu, M.R., Vlahos, L.: 1982, Space Sci. Rev. 32, 405. ADSGoogle Scholar
  146. Kundu, M.R., MacDowall, R.J., Stone, R.G.: 1990, Astrophys. Space Sci. 165, 101. ADSGoogle Scholar
  147. Kundu, M.R., Nindos, A., Grechnev, V.V.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 420, 351. ADSGoogle Scholar
  148. Kundu, M.R., Schmahl, E.J., Velusamy, T., Vlahos, L.: 1982, Astron. Astrophys. 108, 188. ADSGoogle Scholar
  149. Kundu, M.R., White, S.M., Gopalswamy, N., Lim, J.: 1994, Astrophys. J. (Suppl.) 90, 599. ADSGoogle Scholar
  150. Kundu, M.R., Nitta, N., White, S.M., Shibasaki, K., Enome, S., Sakao, T., Kosugi, T., Sakurai, T.: 1995, Astrophys. J. 454, 522. ADSGoogle Scholar
  151. Kundu, M.R., Nindos, A., Vilmer, N., Klein, K.-L., Shibata, K., Ohyama, M.: 2001a, Astrophys. J. 559, 443. ADSGoogle Scholar
  152. Kundu, M.R., Nindos, A., White, S.M., Grechnev, V.V.: 2001b, Astrophys. J. 557, 880. ADSGoogle Scholar
  153. Kundu, M.R., White, S.M., Shibasaki, K., Sakurai., T., Grechnev, V.V.: 2001c, Astrophys. J. 547, 1090. ADSGoogle Scholar
  154. Kundu, M.R., Garaimov, V.I., White, S.M., Krucker, S.: 2004, Astrophys. J. 600, 1052. ADSGoogle Scholar
  155. LaBelle, J., Treumann, R.A., Yoon, P.H., Karlický, M.: 2003, Astrophys. J. 593, 1195. ADSGoogle Scholar
  156. Laitinen, T., Klein, K.-L., Kocharov, L., Torsti, J., Trottet, G., Bothmer, V., Kaiser, M.L., Rank, G., Reiner, M.J.: 2000, Astron. Astrophys. 360, 729. ADSGoogle Scholar
  157. Lantos, P., Kerdraon, A., Rapley, G.G., Bentley, R.D.: 1981, Astron. Astrophys. 101, 33. ADSGoogle Scholar
  158. Larson, D.E., Lin, R.P., Ergun, R.E., McTiernan, J.M., McFadden, J.P., Carlson, C.W., et al.: 1997, Adv. Space Res. 20, 655. ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. Lecacheux, A., Steiberg, J.-L., Hoang, S., Dulk, G.A.: 1989, Astron. Astrophys. 217, 237. ADSGoogle Scholar
  160. Ledenev, V.G., Yan, Y.-H., Fu, Q.-J.: 2001, Chin. J. Astron. Astrophys. 1, 475. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Leblanc, Y., Dulk, G.A., Vourlidas, A., Bougeret, J.-L.: 2001, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 25301. ADSGoogle Scholar
  162. Lee, J., Gary, D.E.: 2000, Astrophys. J. 543, 457. ADSGoogle Scholar
  163. Lee, J., Gary, D.E., Shibasaki, K.: 2000, Astrophys. J. 531, 1109. ADSGoogle Scholar
  164. Lee, J., Gary, D.E., Qiu, J., Gallagher, P.: 2002, Astrophys. J. 572, 609. ADSGoogle Scholar
  165. Lin, R.P.: 1974, Space Sci. Rev. 16, 189. ADSGoogle Scholar
  166. Lin, R.P., Mewaldt, R.A., van Hollebeke, M.A.I.: 1982, Astrophys. J. 253, 949. ADSGoogle Scholar
  167. Lingenfelter, R.E., Ramaty, R.: 1967, Planet. Space Sci. 15, 1303. ADSGoogle Scholar
  168. Lintunen, J., Vainio, R.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 420, 343. ADSGoogle Scholar
  169. Low, B.C., Hundhausen, J.R.: 1995, Astrophys. J. 443, 818. ADSGoogle Scholar
  170. Lüthi, T., Lüdi, A., Magun, A.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 420, 361. ADSGoogle Scholar
  171. Lüthi, T., Magun, A., Miller, M.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 415, 1123. ADSGoogle Scholar
  172. MacDowall, R.J., Stone, R.G., Kundu, M.R.: 1987, Solar Phys. 111, 397. ADSGoogle Scholar
  173. Maia, D., Pick, M.: 2004, Astrophys. J. 609, 1082. ADSGoogle Scholar
  174. Maia, D., Pick, M., Kerdraon, A., Howard, R., Brueckner, G.E., Michels, D.J., et al.: 1998, Solar Phys. 181, 121. ADSGoogle Scholar
  175. Maia, D., Pick, M., Vourlidas, A., Howard, R.: 2000, Astrophys. J. 528, L49. ADSGoogle Scholar
  176. Maia, D., Aulanier, G., Wang, S.J., Pick, M., Malherbe, J.-M.: 2003, Astrophys. J. 405, 313. ADSGoogle Scholar
  177. Maia, D., Gama, R., Mercier, C., Pick, M., Kerdraon, A., Karlický, M.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 660, 874. ADSGoogle Scholar
  178. Mancuso, S., Raymond, J.C.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 413, 363. ADSGoogle Scholar
  179. Manoharan, P.K., Kundu, M.R.: 2003, Astrophys. J. 592, 597. ADSGoogle Scholar
  180. Mann, G.: 1995, In: Benz, A.O., Kruger, A. (eds.) Coronal Magnetic Energy Releases, Springer, Berlin, 183. Google Scholar
  181. Mann, G., Klassen, A.: 2002, In: Kuijpers, J. (ed.) Solar Variability: From Core to Outer Frontiers SP-506, ESA, Nordwijk, 245. Google Scholar
  182. Mann, G., Motschmann, U.: 1987, Solar Phys. 110, 381. ADSGoogle Scholar
  183. Mann, G., Classen, T., Aurass, H.: 1995, Astron. Astrophys. 295, 775. ADSGoogle Scholar
  184. Mann, G., Aurass, H., Warmuth, A.: 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 454, 969. ADSGoogle Scholar
  185. Mann, G., Baumgartel, K., Chernov, G.P., Karlický, M.: 1989, Solar Phys. 120, 383. ADSGoogle Scholar
  186. Mann, G., Aurass, H., Klassen, A., Estel, C., Thompson, B.J.: 1999, In: Vial, J.-C., Kaldeich-Schurmann, B. (eds.) Plasma Dynamics and Diagnostics in the Solar Transition Region and Corona SP-446, ESA, Nordwijk, 477 Google Scholar
  187. Mann, G., Klassen, A., Aurass, H., Classen, H.-T.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 329. ADSGoogle Scholar
  188. Marqué, C., Lantos, P., Delaboudinière, J.-P.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 387, 317. ADSGoogle Scholar
  189. Marqué, C., Posner, A., Klein, K.-L.: 2006, Astrophys. J. 642, 1222. ADSGoogle Scholar
  190. Melnikov, V.F., Magun, A.: 1998, Solar Phys. 178, 153. ADSGoogle Scholar
  191. Melnikov, V.F., Shibasaki, K., Reznikova, V.E.: 2002, Astrophys. J. 580, L185. ADSGoogle Scholar
  192. Melrose, D.B.: 1987, Solar Phys. 111, 89. ADSGoogle Scholar
  193. Melrose, D.B.: 1997, Astrophys. Space Sci. 242, 209. ADSGoogle Scholar
  194. Melrose, D.B., Robinson, P.A., Feletto, T.M.: 1995, Solar Phys. 158, 139. ADSGoogle Scholar
  195. Mercier, C.: 1996, Ann. Geophys. 14, 42. ADSGoogle Scholar
  196. Nelson, G.J., Melrose, D.B.: 1985, In: McLean, D.J., Labrum, N.R. (eds.) Solar Radiophysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 333 Google Scholar
  197. Nelson, G.J., Robinson, R.D.: 1975, Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 2, 370. ADSGoogle Scholar
  198. Nindos, A., Aurass, H.: 2007, In: Klein, K.-L., MacKinnon, A.L. (eds.) The High Energy Corona: Waves, Eruptions, Particles, Lecture Notes in Physics 725, Springer, Berlin, 251. Google Scholar
  199. Nindos, A., White, S.M., Kundu, M.R., Gary, D.E.: 2000, Astrophys. J. 533, 1053. ADSGoogle Scholar
  200. Nishio, M., Yaji, K., Kosugi, T., Nakajima, H., Sakurai, T.: 1997, Astrophys. J. 489, 976. ADSGoogle Scholar
  201. Nita, G.M., Gary, D.E., Lee, J.: 2004, Astrophys. J. 605, 528. ADSGoogle Scholar
  202. Paesold, G., Benz, A.O., Klein, K.-L., Vilmer, N.: 2001, Astron. Astrophys. 371, 333. ADSGoogle Scholar
  203. Platonov, K.Yu., Fleishman, G.D.: 1994, Z. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 79, 572. Google Scholar
  204. Pick, M., Maia, D.: 2005, Adv. Space Res. 35, 1876. ADSGoogle Scholar
  205. Pick, M., van den Oord, G.H.: 1990, Solar Phys. 130, 83. ADSGoogle Scholar
  206. Pohjolainen, S., Maia, D., Pick, M., Vilmer, N., Khan, J.I., Otruba, W., Warmuth, A., Benz, A., Alissandrakis, C., Thompson, B.J.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 556, 421. ADSGoogle Scholar
  207. Pohjolainen, S., Vilmer, N., Khan, J.I., Hillaris, A.: 2005, Astron. Astrophys. 434, 329. ADSGoogle Scholar
  208. Poquérusse, M., Steinberg, J.-L., Caroubalos, C., Dulk, G.A., MacQueen, R.M.: 1988, Astron. Astrophys. 192, 323. ADSGoogle Scholar
  209. Poquérusse, M., Hoang, S., Bougeret, J.-L., Moncuquet, M.: 1995, In: Solar Wind 8 Proc., Dana Point/California, 62. Google Scholar
  210. Potter, D.W., Lin, R.P., Anderson, K.A.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 236, 97. ADSGoogle Scholar
  211. Preka-Papadema, P., Alissandrakis, C.E.: 1988, Astron. Astrophys. 191, 365. ADSGoogle Scholar
  212. Preka-Papadema, P., Alissandrakis, C.E.: 1992, Astron. Astrophys. 257, 307. ADSGoogle Scholar
  213. Ramaty, R.: 1969, Astrophys. J. 158, 753. ADSGoogle Scholar
  214. Ramesh, R., Kathiravan, C., Narayan, A.S., Ebenezer, E.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 400, 753. ADSGoogle Scholar
  215. Raoult, A., Pick, M., Dennis, B.R., Kane, S.R.: 1985, Astrophys. J. 299, 1027. ADSGoogle Scholar
  216. Raulin, J.-P., Kundu, M.R., Hudson, H.S., Nitta, N., Raoult, A.: 1996, Astron. Astrophys. 306, 299. ADSGoogle Scholar
  217. Raulin, J.-P., White, S.M., Kundu, M.R., Silva, A.V.R., Shibasaki, K.: 1999, Astrophys. J. 522, 547. ADSGoogle Scholar
  218. Rausche, G., Aurass, H., Mann, G., Karlický, M., Vocks, C.: 2007, Solar Phys. 245, 327. ADSGoogle Scholar
  219. Raymond, J.C., Thompson, B.J., St. Cyr, O.C., Gopalswamy, N., Kahler, S., Kaiser, M., et al.: 2000, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1439. ADSGoogle Scholar
  220. Reames, D.: 1999, Space Sci. Rev. 90, 413. ADSGoogle Scholar
  221. Reiner, M.J., Anderson, K.A., Roelof, E., Armstrong, T., Hospodarsky, G.B., Fainberg, J., et al.: 1995, Space Sci. Rev. 72, 261. ADSGoogle Scholar
  222. Reiner, M.J., Karlický, M., Jiřička, K., Aurass, H., Mann, G., Kaiser, M.L.: 2000, Astrophys. J. 530, 1049. ADSGoogle Scholar
  223. Reiner, M.J., Kaiser, M.L., Karlický, M., Jiřička, K., Bougeret, J.-L.: 2001, Solar Phys. 204, 121. ADSGoogle Scholar
  224. Robinson, R.D.: 1985, In: McLean, D.J., Labrum, N.R. (eds.) Solar Radiophysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 385. Google Scholar
  225. Robinson, R.D., Benz, A.O.: 2000, Solar Phys. 194, 345. ADSGoogle Scholar
  226. Robinson, R.D., Cairns, I.H., Gurnett, D.A.: 1992, Astrophys. J. 387, L101. ADSGoogle Scholar
  227. Ruffolo, D., Tooprakai, P., Rujiwarodom, M., Khumlumlert, T., Wechakama, M., Bieber, J.W., et al.: 2006, Astrophys. J. 639, 1186. ADSGoogle Scholar
  228. Sakai, J.I., Nagasugi, Y.: 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 470, 1117. ADSGoogle Scholar
  229. Shanmugaraju, A., Moon, Y.-J., Cho, K.-S., Dryer, M., Umapathy, S.: 2006, Solar Phys. 233, 117. ADSGoogle Scholar
  230. Sheridan, K.V., Jackson, B.V., McLear, D.J., Dulk, G.A.: 1978, Proc. Astron. Soc. Austr. 3, 249. ADSGoogle Scholar
  231. Shibata, K., Masuda, S., Shimojo, M., Hara, H., Yokoyama, T., Tsuneta, S., et al.: 1995, Astrophys. J. 451, L83. ADSGoogle Scholar
  232. Silva, A.V.R., Wang, H., Gary, D.E.: 2000, Astrophys. J. 545, 1116. ADSGoogle Scholar
  233. Silva, A.V.R., Share, G.H., Murphy, R.J., Costa, J.E.R., Giménez de Castro, C.G., Raulin, J.-P., Kaufmann, P.: 2007, Solar Phys. 245, 311. ADSGoogle Scholar
  234. Simnett, G.M., Roelof, E.C., Haggerty, D.K.: 2002, Astrophys. J. 579, 854. ADSGoogle Scholar
  235. Somov, B., Kosugi, T.: 1997, Astrophys. J. 485, 859. ADSGoogle Scholar
  236. Steinberg, J.-L., Hoang, S., Lecacheux, A., Aubier, M.G., Dulk, G.A.: 1984, Astron. Astrophys. 140, 39. ADSGoogle Scholar
  237. Steinolfson, R.S.: 1984, Solar Phys. 94, 193. ADSGoogle Scholar
  238. Steinolfson, R.S.: 1985, In: Tsurutani, B.T., Stone, R.G. (eds.) Collisionless Shocks in the Heliosphere: Reviews of Current Research, Geophys. Mon. Ser. 35, AGU, Washington, 1. Google Scholar
  239. Stepanov, A.V., Kliem, B., Kruger, A., Hildebrandt, J., Garaimov, V.I.: 1999, Astrophys. J. 524, 961. ADSGoogle Scholar
  240. Stepanov, A.V., Yokoyama, T., Shibasaki, K., Melnikov, V.F.: 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 465, 706. Google Scholar
  241. Stewart, R.T.: 1984, Solar Phys. 94, 379. ADSGoogle Scholar
  242. Stewart, R.T.: 1985, In: McLean, D.J., Labrum, N.R. (eds.) Solar Radiophysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 361. Google Scholar
  243. Tajima, T., Benz, A.O., Thaker, M., Leboeuf, J.N.: 1990, Astron. Astrophys. 353, 666. ADSGoogle Scholar
  244. Temmer, M., Veronig, A.M., Vršnak, B., Miklenic, C.: 2007, Astrophys. J. 654, 665. ADSGoogle Scholar
  245. Treumann, R.A., Güdel, M., Benz, A.O.: 1990, Astron. Astrophys. 236, 242. ADSGoogle Scholar
  246. Trottet, G., Vilmer, N.: 1984, Adv. Space Res. 4, 153. ADSGoogle Scholar
  247. Trottet, G., Pick, M., House, L., Illing, R., Sawyer, C., Wagner, W.: 1982, Astron. Astrophys. 111, 306. ADSGoogle Scholar
  248. Trottet, G., Vilmer, N., Barat, C., Benz, A., Magun, A., Kuznetsov, A., Sunyaev, R., Terekhov, O.: 1998, Astron. Astrophys. 334, 1099. ADSGoogle Scholar
  249. Trottet, G., Rolli, E., Magun, A., Barat, C., Kuznetsov, A., Sunyaev, R., Terekhov, O.: 2000, Astron. Astrophys. 356, 1067. ADSGoogle Scholar
  250. Trottet, G., Raulin, J.-P., Kaufmann, P., Siarkowski, M., Klein, K.-L., Gary, D.E.: 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 381, 694. ADSGoogle Scholar
  251. Trottet, G., Krucker, S., Lüthi, T., Magun, A.: 2008, Astrophys. J. 678, 509. ADSGoogle Scholar
  252. Tsuneta, S., Naito, T.: 1998, Astrophys. J. 495, L67. ADSGoogle Scholar
  253. Uchida, Y.: 1968, Solar Phys. 4, 30. ADSGoogle Scholar
  254. Uchida, Y., Altschuler, M.D., Newkirk, G.: 1973, Solar Phys. 28, 495. ADSGoogle Scholar
  255. Uralov, A.M., Lesovoi, S.V., Zandanov, V.G., Grechnev, V.V.: 2002, Solar Phys. 208, 69. ADSGoogle Scholar
  256. Vainio, R., Khan, J.I.: 2004, Astrophys. J. 600, 451. ADSGoogle Scholar
  257. Veronig, A.M., Brown, J.C.: 2004, Astrophys. J. 603, L117. ADSGoogle Scholar
  258. Veronig, A.M., Brown, J.C., Dennis, B.R., Schwartz, R.A., Sui, L., Tolbert, A.K.: 2005, Astrophys. J. 621, 482. ADSGoogle Scholar
  259. Veronig, A.M., Karlický, M., Vršnak, B., Temmer, M., Magdalenic, J., Dennis, B.R., Otruba, W., Pötzi, W.: 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 446, 675. ADSGoogle Scholar
  260. Vlahos, L.: 1994, Space Sci. Rev. 68, 39. ADSGoogle Scholar
  261. Vlahos, L., Raoult, A.: 1995, Astron. Astrophys. 296, 844. ADSGoogle Scholar
  262. Vlahos, L., Georgoulis, M., Kluiving, R., Paschos, P.: 1995, Astron. Astrophys. 299, 897. ADSGoogle Scholar
  263. Vršnak, B., Lulic, S.: 2000, Solar Phys. 196, 157. ADSGoogle Scholar
  264. Vršnak, B., Aurass, H., Magdalenic, J., Gopalswamy, N.: 2001, Astron. Astrophys. 377, 321. ADSGoogle Scholar
  265. Vršnak, B., Warmuth, A., Temmer, M., Veronig, A., Magdalenic, J., Hillaris, A., Karlický, M.: 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 448, 739. ADSGoogle Scholar
  266. Wagner, W.J., MacQueen, R.M.: 1983, Astron. Astrophys. 120, 136. ADSGoogle Scholar
  267. Wagner, W.J., Hildner, E., House, L.L., Sawyer, C., Sheridan, K.V., Dulk, G.A.: 1981, Astrophys. J. 244, L123. ADSGoogle Scholar
  268. Wang, S., Yan, Y., Zhao, R., Fu, Q., Tan, C., Xu, L., Wang, S., Lin, H.: 2001, Solar Phys. 204, 153. ADSGoogle Scholar
  269. Warmuth, A. 2007, In: Klein, K.-L., MacKinnon, A. (eds.) The High-Energy Solar Corona: Waves, Eruptions, Particles, Lecture Notes in Physics, 725, Springer, Berin, 107. Google Scholar
  270. Warmuth, A., Mann, G.: 2005, Astron. Astrophys. 435, 1123. ADSGoogle Scholar
  271. Warmuth, A., Vršnak, B., Magdalenic, J., Hanslmeier, A., Otruba, W.: 2004, Astron. Astrophys. 418, 1101. ADSGoogle Scholar
  272. White, S.M., Kundu, M.R., Garaimov, V.I., Yokoyama, T., Sato, J.: 2002, Astrophys. J. 576, 505. ADSGoogle Scholar
  273. White, S.M., Krucker, S., Shibasaki, K., Yokoyama, T., Shimojo, M., Kundu, M.R.: 2003, Astrophys. J. 595, L111. ADSGoogle Scholar
  274. Yan, Y., Pick, M., Wang, M., Krucker, S., Vourlidas, A.: 2006, Solar Phys. 239, 277. ADSGoogle Scholar
  275. Yokoyama, T., Nakajima, H., Shibasaki, K., Melnikov, V.F., Stepanov, A.V.: 2002, Astrophys. J. 576, L87. ADSGoogle Scholar
  276. Zhang, J., Dere, K.P., Howard, R.A., Kundu, M.R., White, S.M.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 559, 452. ADSGoogle Scholar
  277. Zheleznyakov, V.V.: 1970, Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets, Pergamon, New York. Google Scholar
  278. Zheleznyakov, V.V., Zlotnik, E.Ya.: 1975, Solar Phys. 43, 431. ADSGoogle Scholar
  279. Zlotnik, E.Ya.: 1981, Astron. Astrophys. 101, 250. zbMATHADSGoogle Scholar
  280. Zlotnik, E.Ya., Zaitsev, V.V., Aurass, H., Mann, G., Hofmann, A.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 410, 1011. zbMATHADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of Astrogeophysics, Physics DepartmentUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece
  2. 2.Astrophysikalisches Institut PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  3. 3.Observatoire de ParisLESIA – CNRS UMR 8109MeudonFrance

Personalised recommendations