Solar Physics

, Volume 250, Issue 1, pp 147–158 | Cite as

Modeling of Solar Wind in the Coronal Funnel with Mass and Energy Supplied at 5 Mm

  • J.-S. He
  • C.-Y. Tu
  • E. Marsch
Open Access


The origin of the solar wind is a long-standing issue in both observational and theoretical studies. To understand how and where in the solar atmosphere the mass and energy of the solar wind are supplied is very important. Previous observation suggests a scenario in which the fast solar wind originates at heights above 5 Mm in the magnetically open funnel, a process that is accompanied by downward flow below 5 Mm, whereby the mass and energy are supplied through reconnection between the open funnel and adjacent closed loops. Based on this scenario, we develop a fluid model to study the solar wind generation under the assumption that mass and energy are deposited in the open funnel at 5 Mm. The mass supply rate is estimated from the mass loss rate as given by the emptying of the side loops as a result of their assumed reconnection with the open funnel. Similarly, the energy input rate is consistent with the energy release rate as estimated from the energy flux associated with the reconnection between the open magnetic funnel and the closed magnetic loops. Following the observations, we not only simulate the plasma flowing upward to form the solar wind but also calculate the downward flow back to the lower atmosphere. This model is a first attempt to study physically the proposed scenario of solar wind origin and gives a new physical illustration of the possible initial deposition and consequent transportation of mass and energy in the coronal funnel.


Solar Wind Polar Coronal Hole Fast Solar Wind Energy Input Rate Solar Wind Origin 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Earth and Space SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Max-Planck-Institut für SonnensystemforschungKatlenburg-LindauGermany

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