Solar Physics

, Volume 229, Issue 1, pp 115–125 | Cite as

Occurrence of a White-Light Flare Over a Sunspot and the Associated Change of Magnetic Flux

  • J. P. LiEmail author
  • M. D. Ding
  • Y. Liu


A white-light flare (WLF) on 10 March 2001 was well observed in the Hα line and the Ca ii λ8542 line using the imaging spectrograph installed on the Solar Tower Telescope of Nanjing University. Three small sunspots appeared in the infrared continuum image. In one sunspot, the infrared continuum is enhanced by 4–6% compared to the preflare value, making the sunspot almost disappear in the continuum image for about 3 min. A hard X-ray (HXR) source appeared near the sunspot, the flux of which showed a good time correlation with the profile of the continuum emission. In the sunspot region, both positive and negative magnetic flux suffered a substantial change. We propose that electron precipitation followed by radiative back-warming may play the chief role in heating the sunspot. The temperature rise in the lower atmosphere and the corresponding energy requirement are estimated. The results show that the energy released in a typical WLF is sufficient to power the sunspot heating.


Flare Magnetic Flux Energy Requirement Time Correlation Lower Atmosphere 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aboudarham, J., Hénoux, J.-C., Brown, J. C., van den Oord, G. H. J., van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., and Gerlei, O.: 1990, Solar Phys. 130, 243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ding, M. D., Fang, C., and Yun, H. S.: 1999, Astrophys. J. 512, 454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ding, M. D., Qiu, J., and Wang, H. M.: 2002, Astrophys. J. 576, L83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ding, M. D., Fang, C., Gan, W. Q., and Okamoto, T.: 1994, Astrophys. J. 429, 890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ding, M. D., Chen, Q. R., Li, J. P., and Chen, P. F.: 2003a, Astrophys. J. 598, 683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ding, M. D., Liu, Y., Yeh, C.-T., and Li, J. P.: 2003b, Astron. Astrophys. 403, 1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Emslie, A. G. and Machado, M. E.: 1979, Solar Phys. 64, 129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fang, C., Hénoux, J.-C., and Ding, M. D.: 2000, Astron. Astrophys. 360, 702.Google Scholar
  9. Fang, C., Hénoux, J.-C., and Gan, W. Q.: 1993, Astron. Astrophys. 274, 917.Google Scholar
  10. Fang, C., Hénoux, J.-C., Hu, J., Xue, Y. Z., Gao, X. F., and Fu, Q. J.: 1995, Solar Phys. 157, 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu, Y., Ding, M. D., and Fang, C.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 563, L169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Machado, M. E. and Hénoux, J.-C.: 1982, Astron. Astrophys. 108, 61.Google Scholar
  13. Machado, M. E., Emslie, A. G., and Avrett, E. H.: 1989, Solar Phys. 124, 303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Machado, M. E., Emslie, A. G., and Brown, J. C.: 1978, Solar Phys. 58, 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Machado, M. E., Avrett, E. H., Falciani, R., Fang, C., Gesztelyi, L., Hénoux, J. C., Hiei, E., Neidig, D. F., Rust, D. M., Sotirovski, P., Švestka, Z., and Zirin, H.: 1986, in D. F. Neidig (ed.), The Lower Atmosphere of Solar Flares, NSO Sunspot, NM, p. 483.Google Scholar
  16. Machado, M. E., Moore, R. L., Hernandez, A. M., Rovira, M. G., Hagyard, M. J., and Smith Jr., J. B.: 1988a, Astrophys. J. 326, 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Machado, M. E., Xiao, Y. C., Wu, S. T., Prokakis, Th., and Dialetis, D.: 1988b, Astrophys. J. 326, 451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Martin, S. F., Bentley, R. D., Schadee, A., Antalova, A., Kucera, A., Dezsö, L., Gesztelyi, L., Harvey, K. L., Jones, H., and Livi, S. H. B.: 1984, Adv. Space Res. 4, 61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Martres, M. J., Michard, R., Soru-Iscovici, I., and Tsap, T.: 1968, IAU Symp. 35, 318.Google Scholar
  20. Mauas, P. J.: 1993, Astrophys. J., 414, 928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mauas, P. J., Machado, M. E., and Avrett, E. H.: 1990, Astrophys. J. 360, 715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maltby, P., Avrett, E. H., Carlsson, M., Kjeldseth-Moe, O., Kurucz, R. L., and Loeser R.: 1986, Astrophys. J. 306, 284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Metcalf, T. R., Alexander, D., Hudson, H. S., and Longcope, D. W.: 2003, Astrophys. J. 595, 483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Neidig, D. F.: 1989, Solar Phys. 121, 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Neidig, D. F. and Kane, S. R.: 1993, Solar Phys. 143, 201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Neidig, D. F., Kiplinger, A. L., Cohl, H. S., and Wiborg, P. H.: 1993, Astrophys. J. 406, 306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ogawara, Y., Takano, T., Kato, T., Kosugi, T., Tsuneta, S., Watanabe, T., Kondo, I., and Uchida, Y.: 1991, Solar Phys. 136, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Uddin, W., Jain, R., Yoshimura, K., Chandra, R., Sakao, T., Kosugi, T., Joshi, A., and Despande, M. R.: 2004, Solar Phys. 225, 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vernazza, J. E., Avrett, E. H., and Loeser, R.: 1981, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 45, 635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AstronomyNanjing UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations