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Zelikow held three different offices in the U.S. Department of State during the second Reagan administration; he was on the National Security Council under President George H. W. Bush, along with Condoleezza Rice; he served on President George W. Bush’s transition team in 2000–2001; then he was named to the president’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board.
Indeed, Clinton had received a presidential daily briefing in December 1998 entitled “Bin Ladin Preparing to Hijack U.S. Aircraft and Other Attacks.” Clinton took al-Qaeda warnings seriously and wanted Bin Ladin dead, but efforts to accomplish this were never successfully mobilized (pp. 128–33).
For penetrating analyses of signals, perception, and misperception in international politics, see Jervis (1970, 1976).
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