Satisfaction and Tourism Expenditure Behaviour

  • Pierpaolo D’UrsoEmail author
  • Marta Disegna
  • Riccardo Massari
Original Research


In the literature, the quantification of the effect of satisfaction on tourists’ expenditure behaviour has not been extensively studied. This research aims to fill in this gap, providing additional information about this crucial relation by analysing it from a microdata perspective. In particular, the Fuzzy Double-Hurdle model, a new model which combines the well-known Double-Hurdle model and the fuzzy set theory, is suggested and presented, both technically and by means of a real case study. The proposed model gathers the advantages of the Double-Hurdle model and the fuzzy set theory together producing a suitable model for the analysis of censored observations in presence of imprecise data. Specifically, the Double-Hurdle model allows to efficiently estimate the average values of a non-negative, non-normally distributed variable characterised by high frequency of zero values, as tourists’ expenditure can be, considering the two-stages nature of the decision process. On the other end, the inclusion of the fuzzy set theory in the regression model allows to cope with the imprecision of both collected information (i.e. levels of satisfaction) and kind of measurement used (i.e. Liker-type scale). The results will help tourism managers to more accurately evaluate the efficacy of their policies and marketing strategies in enhancing tourists’ satisfaction and, consequently, in increasing the level of spending at the destination.


Satisfaction Expenditures behaviour Imprecise data Likert-type scale Fuzzy numbers Fuzzy regression Fuzzy Double-Hurdle 



We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers and the editor for the useful feedbacks on previous versions of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierpaolo D’Urso
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marta Disegna
    • 2
  • Riccardo Massari
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze Sociali ed EconomicheSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Accounting, Finance & Economics, Faculty of ManagementBournemouth UniversityBournemouthUK

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