Graduation from Poverty and Deprivation: Reflections from an Intervention in the Graduation Model
Graduation model is an approach to social development that focuses on asset creation and sustained development. This model has widely accepted as an innovative strategy to address the issues of extreme poverty and deprivation. The present paper is the manifestation of a major intervention program implemented in the three States of India namely Assam, Bihar and West Bengal. The intervention package aimed to alleviate the extreme poverty, creation of assets and enhancement of other social development indicators. The participating households were chosen from the identified backward localities of the above mentioned States. The total number of households participated in the study were 750. The structured intervention program was delivered for 2 years. The various dimensions of poverty alleviation, self-sufficiency, asset creation and social development were addressed in the intervention program. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were adopted for analyzing the pre and post-intervention phases. The result of the study indicates positive signs of graduation from poverty and deprivation. Significant improvements were evident in the household and income generating assets. The intervention yielded positive results in bringing changes in the habits of saving and attitudes towards the access to public facilities.
KeywordsGraduation model Poverty Deprivation Social development Intervention
- Aasha, K. M. (2017). Poverty eradication—Why do we always fail?. Down to earth. http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/poverty-eradication-why-do-we-always-fail56927.
- Ahmed, A. U., Rabbani, M., Sulaiman, M., & Das, N. C. (2009). The mpact of asset transfer on livelihoods of the ultra poor in Bangladesh. BRAC Research Monograph. Ser 39. http://research.brac.net/new/component/k2/livelihoods.
- Banerje, B., Duflo, E., Chattopadhyay, R., & Shapiro, J. (2016). The long term impacts of a “Graduation” Program: Evidence from West Bengal” Working Paper. https://economics.mit.edu/files/12031.
- Emran, M. S., Robano, V., & Smith, S. C. (2014). Assessing the frontiers of ultra poverty reduction: Evidence from challenging the frontiers of poverty reduction/targeting the ultra-poor, an innovative program in bangladesh. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 62(2), 339–380. https://doi.org/10.1086/674110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hashemi, S. M., & Umaira, W. (2011). New pathways for the poorest: The graduation model from BRAC. Centre for Social Protection, Brighton: IDS. http://www.chronicpoverty.org/uploads/publication_files/hashemi_umaira_brac.pdf.
- Huda, K., & Simanowitz, A. (2009). A graduation pathway for Haiti’s poorest: Lessons learned from Fonkoze. Enterprise Development and Microfinance, 20(2), 86–106. http://www.microfinancegateway.org/gm/document1.9.37202/A%20graduation%20pathway.pdf.
- Matin, I., Sulaiman, M., & Rabbani, M. (2008). Crafting a graduation pathway for the ultra poor: Lessons and evidence from a BRAC programme. Chronic Poverty Research Centre Working Paper 109.Google Scholar
- Sabates-Wheeler, R., & Devereux, S. (2011). Transforming livelihoods for resilient futures: How to facilitate graduation in social protection programmes, Future Agricultures. Working Paper 023, Brighton: IDS.Google Scholar
- Sengupta, A. (2012). Pathways out of the productive safety net programme: Lessons from graduation pilot in Ethiopia. Dhaka: BRAC Development Institute.Google Scholar
- Sengupta, A. (2013). Bandhan’s targeting the hard core poor program: A qualitative study on participants’ ascent out of extreme poverty. BRAC Development Institute. http://graduation.cgap.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Bandhan-THP-Program-Qualitative-assessment.pdf.
- Syed, M. H., & Aude, M (2011). Reaching the Poorest: Lessons from the Graduation Model. CGAP. https://www.cgap.org/sites/default/files/CGAP-Focus-Note-Reaching-the-Poorest-Lessons-from-the-Graduation-Model-Mar-2011-French.pdf.
- UN. (2017). The Sustainable Development Goals Report-2017. https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/files/report/2017/TheSustainableDevelopmentGoalsReport2017.pdf.
- World Bank. (2011). Executive summary. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/971181468044348789/Executive-summary.