Crime and Social Connectedness in Malaysian Gated Communities

  • Intan Hashimah Mohd HashimEmail author
  • Norzarina Mohd-Zaharim
  • Premalatha Karupiah
  • Nor Hafizah Selamat
  • Noraida Endut
  • Azwan Azmawati Azman


This article examines how exposure to crime, perceptions of safety, negative affect associated with exposure to crime and social connectedness predict subjective happiness. A survey was conducted with 240 residents from three gated urban residential areas in Penang Island, Malaysia. The survey assessed background information, exposure to crime, perceptions of safety, negative affect associated with exposure to crime, social connectedness and subjective happiness. The study found social connectedness to be a significant predictor for negative affect associated with crime and subjective happiness. Relationships between exposure to crime, perceptions of safety and subjective happiness were less clear. Exposure to crime and perceptions of safety for this sample may represent more specific experiences that bear lower implications for global assessment such as subjective happiness. This study highlights the need to understand the complex relationships between exposure to crime, perceptions of safety and other contextual factors, all in the context of urban living.


Crime Perceptions of safety Social connectedness Subjective happiness Malaysia 



This research was funded by Universiti Sains Malaysia under Research University Grant 1001/PHUMANITIES/870022 Crime and Public Safety awarded to the corresponding author.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia
  2. 2.Center for Research on Women and Gender, Universiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia
  3. 3.School of CommunicationUniversiti Sains MalaysiaMindenMalaysia

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