Social Indicators Research

, Volume 146, Issue 1–2, pp 361–382 | Cite as

Measuring Tourist Satisfaction Through a Dual Approach: The 4Q Methodology

  • Antonino Mario OliveriEmail author
  • Gabriella Polizzi
  • Anna Maria Parroco


Tourist satisfaction is one of the key factors in determining the success of a tourist destination, since it affects behavioural intentions, such as the willingness to revisit and recommend the destination. Therefore, much research has addressed the measuring of tourist satisfaction, either eliciting positive or negative evaluations of a holiday or destination. The spread between expected positive and negative characteristics can trigger a tourist experience. And the gap between expectations and perceptions will produce a feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Expectancy-Disconfirmation Paradigm, EDP). Under these conditions, this paper adopts a dual approach, considering tourist satisfaction and dissatisfaction as two distinct constructs; it also proposes a practical methodology, termed 4Q, for measuring these constructs in the field of tourism research. Lastly, two distinct composite indicators relating to Tourist Satisfaction (TS) and Tourist Dissatisfaction (TD) are proposed, for comparing the performance of tourist destinations over space and time, and addressing marketing strategies regarding different tourist segments.


Tourist satisfaction/dissatisfaction (TS/TD) Expectancy-disconfirmation paradigm (EDP) Dual approach 4Q methodology Formative measurement Composite indicators Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) 


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department Cultures and SocietiesUniversità degli Studi di PalermoPalermoItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of Human and Social SciencesUniversità degli Studi di Enna “Kore”EnnaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human MovementUniversità degli Studi di PalermoPalermoItaly

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