A Multi-dimensional Measure of Environmental Behavior: Exploring the Predictive Power of Connectedness to Nature, Ecological Worldview and Environmental Concern

  • Anastasia GkargkavouziEmail author
  • George Halkos
  • Steriani Matsiori


In this study we examine the multi-dimensional structure of environmental behavior and its potential domains. Factor analysis reveals six behavioral domains: civic actions, policy support, recycling, transportation choices, behaviors in a household setting and consumerism. We use the Connectedness to Nature and Inclusion of Nature in Self scales to measure connection with nature, the New Environmental Paradigm to measure ecological worldviews, and Environmental Motives Scale to assess people’s environmental concern. We further explore the predictive power of connectedness to nature, ecological worldview, and environmental concern for explaining the diverse behavioral domains. Connectedness to nature and ecological worldview were more predictive of civic actions, recycling, household behaviors, and consumerism than were environmental concerns. In the case of policy support and transportation choices, environmental concerns explained more variance than the other constructs.


Environmental behavior Connectedness to nature Ecological worldview Environmental concern 


Authors’ Contributions

Anastasia Gkargkavouzi contributed to conception and design, the collection of the data, analysis, and interpretation of data, and drafting the article. Professor George Halkos contributed to the drafting of the data. Assistant Professor Steriani Matsiori contributed to the drafting of the data and supervised the entire study procedure.


The present work is part of a Ph.D. study which is co-financed by the National Strategic Reference Framework (2014–2020), the European Social Fund and Greek Public Sector, through the action “Strengthening the human research potential” and the implementation of Operational Program “Human Resources Development, Education and Lifelong Learning” (MIS 5000432).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All author declare no conflict of intrest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, School of Agricultural SciencesUniversity of ThessalyVolos, Nea IoniaGreece
  2. 2.Department of Economics, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Laboratory of Operations ResearchUniversity of ThessalyVolosGreece
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural Sciences, Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, School of Agricultural SciencesUniversity of ThessalyVolos, Nea IoniaGreece
  4. 4.Department of Economics, Faculty of Humanities and Social SciencesUniversity of ThessalyVolosGreece

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