Social Indicators Research

, Volume 141, Issue 2, pp 539–549 | Cite as

Poverty Impact of Variations in Within-group and Between-group Inequality in Nigeria: New Estimates Using Two Household Survey Data

  • Jude Okechukwu ChukwuEmail author


In an unequal and fragile economy such as Nigeria, providing for the extreme poor, marginalized, disadvantaged, less privileged and vulnerable is still seen by elites as providing for the unproductive segment. This notion seems to be one of the reasons why the elites in government have not done much to scale down poverty and inequality. The study estimates the poverty impact of variations in within-group and between-group inequality using two sequential household survey data, the harmonized national living standard survey, 2010 and the national living standard survey, 2004. Specifically, the study explains the spatial and sectoral variations in estimates of the marginal poverty impact and elasticity with respect to within-group and between-group inequality. The main findings are; first, that within-group inequality and between-group inequality estimates are sensitive to the choice of Foster–Greer–Thorbecke (FGT) poverty measure, and might as well be sensitive to the choice of poverty line; second, that non-homogeneity is due to variations in the initial sub-group distributions; finally, that altering within-group inequality will have more important impact on poverty reduction than altering between-group inequality.


Poverty Inequality Economic welfare Nigeria 

JEL Classification

D12 D60 D63 I32 



The author is grateful to participants at the 14th International Conference on “Africa and Africans in National, Regional and Global Dimensions” organized by Russian Academy of Sciences held in Moscow, Russia from 17th–20th October 2017 for valuable comments. Also, participants of the 28th July 2016 Seminar organized by Federal University Lokoja, Nigeria are commended for their suggestions. More commendation goes to participants at the 28th July 2014 Seminar organized by International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG) in Brasilia, Brazil for valuable comments and suggestions. The author is highly indebted to two anonymous expert reviewers. All errors remain entirely those of the author.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria

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