Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 141, Issue 1, pp 365–390 | Cite as

Quality of Life, Multimodality, and the Demise of the Autocentric Metropolis: A Multivariate Analysis of 148 Mid-Size U.S. Cities

  • Craig A. TalmageEmail author
  • Chad Frederick
Article

Abstract

Quality of life has recently gained prominence in the urban affairs, development, and planning debates. A wide-range of factors have been linked to quality of life, including environmental health, commute times, arts and cultural amenities, school quality, housing availability, and economic concerns. The accessibility inherent in multimodal transportation is critical in the functioning of metropolitan areas. What has not been explored is the association between multimodal transportation and urban quality of life. In this paper, we adapt the method of urban sociologists, Harvey Molotch and Richard Appelbaum, to explore the association between multimodality and 12 measures of quality of life. We analyze 148 cities in the United States with populations over 50,000 that are more than 20 miles from other similarly sized cities. Our test measure is the percentage of workers who commute by some means other than a single-occupant vehicle. Using bivariate and multivariate analysis, this study shows a higher quality of life in counties and metropolitan areas with higher levels of multimodal commuting. These findings underscore the positive impact of sustainable transportation policies on quality of life and opens up new directions for research and policy in the built environment.

Keywords

Modal diversity Commute mode diversity Quality of life Sustainable development Active transportation Transportation planning 

References

  1. Abou-Zeid, M., & Ben-Akiva, M. (2011). The effect of social comparisons on commute well-being. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 45(4), 345–361.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, G., & Gerard, D. (2000). Smart growth and transportation: Opportunities and challenges for Austin. Institute of Transportation Engineers. ITE Journal, 70(11), 30–34.Google Scholar
  3. Amador-Jimenez, L., & Serrano, L. (2017). Pavement management: A service-based optimal allocation of roads’ interventions. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 12(6), 1096–1106.Google Scholar
  4. An, S., Lee, J., & Sohn, D. (2014). Relationship between the built environment in the community and individual health in Incheon, Korea. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 13(1), 171–178.Google Scholar
  5. Angrist, S. S., Belkin, J., & Wallace, W. A. (1976). Social indicators and urban policy analysis. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 10(5), 193–198.Google Scholar
  6. Appelbaum, R. P. (1976). City size and urban life: A preliminary inquiry into some consequences of growth in American cities. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 12(2), 139–170.Google Scholar
  7. Appelbaum, R. P., Bigelow, J., Kramer, H. P., Molotch, H. L., & Relis, P. M. (1976). The impacts of growth: A population impact analysis. New York: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Appelbaum, R. P., & Follett, R. (1978). Size, growth, and urban life a study of medium-sized American cities. Urban Affairs Review, 14(2), 139–168.Google Scholar
  9. Balsas, C. J. (2004). Measuring the livability of an urban centre: An exploratory study of key performance indicators. Planning, Practice & Research, 19(1), 101–110.Google Scholar
  10. Bauer, U. E., Briss, P. A., Goodman, R. A., & Bowman, B. A. (2014). Prevention of chronic disease in the 21st century: Elimination of the leading preventable causes of premature death and disability in the USA. The Lancet, 384(9937), 45–52.Google Scholar
  11. Beiler, M. R. O., & Phillips, B. (2016). Prioritizing pedestrian corridors using walkability performance metrics and decision analysis. Journal of Urban Planning and Development.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000290.Google Scholar
  12. Bertolini, L., & Le Clercq, F. (2003). Urban development without more mobility by car? Lessons from Amsterdam, a multimodal urban region. Environment and Planning A, 35(4), 575–589.Google Scholar
  13. Berton, G., Parry, S. C., Kubani, D., Wolch, J. (2006). Indicators in action: The use of sustainability indicators in the City of Santa Monica. In Sirgy, M. J., Rahtz, D., Swain, D. (eds). Community quality-of-life indicators: Best cases II (Vol. 28, pp. 43–60). Social indicators research series. Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Carlson, V. L., & Theodore, N. (1997). Employment availability for entry-level workers: An examination of the spatial-mismatch hypothesis in Chicago. Urban Geography, 18(3), 228–242.Google Scholar
  15. Carr, J. H., & Kutty, N. K. (Eds.). (2008). Segregation: The rising costs for America. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Carvalho, L., Mingardo, G., & Van Haaren, J. (2012). Green urban transport policies and cleantech innovations: Evidence from Curitiba, Göteborg and Hamburg. European Planning Studies, 20(3), 375–396.Google Scholar
  17. Cervero, R., & Murakami, J. (2010). Effects of built environments on vehicle miles traveled: evidence from 370 US urbanized areas. Environment and Planning A, 42(2), 400–418.Google Scholar
  18. Chambers, M., & Swain, D. (2006). Quality indicators for progress: A guide to community quality-of-life assessments. In Sirgy, M. J., Rahtz, D., & Swain, D. (eds). Community quality-of-life indicators: Best cases II (Vol. 28, pp. 267–322). Social indicators research series. Springer.Google Scholar
  19. Chapple, K. (2006). Overcoming mismatch: Beyond dispersal, mobility, and development strategies. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(3), 322–336.Google Scholar
  20. Chen, Y., Ravulaparthy, S., Deutsch, K., Dalal, P., Yoon, S., Lei, T., et al. (2011). Development of indicators of opportunity-based accessibility. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2255, 58–68.Google Scholar
  21. Cloutier, S., Jambeck, J., & Scott, N. (2014a). The Sustainable Neighborhoods for Happiness Index (SNHI): A metric for assessing a community’s sustainability and potential influence on happiness. Ecological Indicators, 40, 147–152.Google Scholar
  22. Cloutier, S., Larson, L., & Jambeck, J. (2014b). Are sustainable cities “happy” cities? Associations between sustainable development and human well-being in urban areas of the United States. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 16(3), 633–647.Google Scholar
  23. Codd, N., & Walton, M. (1996). Performance measures for multimodal transportation systems. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1518, 70–77.Google Scholar
  24. Collins, K., & Ley García, J. (2014). Happiness and marginalization rates for internal Mexican migrants and the native-born population in Baja California, Mexico. The Social Science Journal, 51(4), 598–606.Google Scholar
  25. Conroy, M. M., & Beatley, T. (2007). Getting it done: An exploration of US sustainability efforts in practice. Planning, Practice & Research, 22(1), 25–40.Google Scholar
  26. County Health Rankings and Roadmaps. (2013). 2013 County health rankings. University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/.
  27. Curtis, S., & Rees, J. I. (1998). Is there a place for geography in the analysis of health inequality? Sociology of Health & Illness, 20(5), 645–672.Google Scholar
  28. Cutts, B. B., Darby, K. J., Boone, C. G., & Brewis, A. (2009). City structure, obesity, and environmental justice: An integrated analysis of physical and social barriers to walkable streets and park access. Social Science and Medicine, 69(9), 1314–1322.Google Scholar
  29. Deas, I., & Giordano, B. (2001). Conceptualising and measuring urban competitiveness in major English cities: An exploratory approach. Environment and Planning A, 33(8), 1411–1429.Google Scholar
  30. Dietz, W. H., & Gortmaker, S. L. (1984). Factors within the physical environment associated with childhood obesity. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 39(4), 619–624.Google Scholar
  31. Diez Roux, A. V. (2001). Investigating neighborhood and area effects on health. American Journal of Public Health, 91(11), 1783–1789.Google Scholar
  32. Dumbaugh, E., & Gattis, J. L. (2005). Safe streets, livable streets. Journal of the American Planning Association, 71(3), 283–300.Google Scholar
  33. Echenique, M. H., Hargreaves, A. J., Mitchell, G., & Namdeo, A. (2012). Growing cities sustainably: Does urban form really matter? Journal of the American Planning Association, 78(2), 121–137.Google Scholar
  34. Ellis, G., Hunter, R., Tully, M. A., Donnelly, M., Kelleher, L., & Kee, F. (2016). Connectivity and physical activity: Using footpath networks to measure the walkability of built environments. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 43(1), 130–151.Google Scholar
  35. Eschback, K., Hagan, J. M., Rodriguez, N. P., & Zakos, A. (1998). Houston heights. Cityscape, 4(2), 245–259.Google Scholar
  36. Fabiyi, O. O. (2013). Analysis of spatial concentration of community poverty and environmental resource base in Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning, 4(2), 227–238.Google Scholar
  37. Fischer, J. M., & Amekudzi, A. (2011). Quality of life, sustainable civil infrastructure, and sustainable development: Strategically expanding choice. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 137(1), 39–48.Google Scholar
  38. Forbes, G. (1998). Vital signs: Circulation in the heart of the city–an overview of downtown traffic. Institute of Transportation Engineers. ITE Journal, 68(8), 26.Google Scholar
  39. Frank, L. D. (1998). Improving air quality through growth management and travel reduction strategies. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 124(1), 11–32.Google Scholar
  40. Frank, L. D. (2000). Land use and transportation interaction implications on public health and quality of life. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 20(1), 6–22.Google Scholar
  41. Frederick, C. (2017). America’s addiction to automobilies: Why cities need to kick the habit and how. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  42. Frederick, C., & Gilderbloom, J. H. (2017). Community mode diversity and income inequality: An inter-city multiple regression analysis of 148 US cities. Local Environment, 22(12), 1–23.Google Scholar
  43. Frederick, C., Riggs, W., & Gilderbloom, J. H. (2017). Community mode diversity and public health: A multivariate analysis of 148 US cities. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 11(10), 1–11.Google Scholar
  44. Frei, C., Mahmassani, H. S., & Frei, A. (2015). Making time count: Traveler activity engagement on urban transit. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 76, 58–70.Google Scholar
  45. Gardner, J. W., & Sanborn, J. S. (1990). Years of potential life lost (YPLL)—What does it measure? Epidemiology, 1(4), 322–329.Google Scholar
  46. Genikomsakis, K. N., Ioakimidis, C. S., Bocquier, B., Savvidis, D., & Simic, D. (2013). Electromobility and carsharing/carpooling services at the University of Deusto: A preliminary exploratory survey. In 2013 16th international IEEE conference on intelligent transportation systems-(ITSC) (pp. 1935–1940). IEEE.Google Scholar
  47. Ghosh, D., & Vogt, A. (2012). Outliers: An evaluation of methodologies. In Joint statistical meetings (pp. 3455–3460). San Diego, CA: American Statistical Association.Google Scholar
  48. Gilderbloom, J. I., & Appelbaum, R. P. (1987). Toward a sociology of rent: Are rental housing markets competitive? Social Problems, 34(3), 261–276.Google Scholar
  49. Gilderbloom, J., Hanka, M. J., & Lasley, C. B. (2009). Amsterdam: Planning and policy for the ideal city? Local Environment, 14(6), 473–493.Google Scholar
  50. Giuliano, G. (2003). Travel, location and race/ethnicity. Transportation Research Part A, 37(4), 351–372.Google Scholar
  51. Gobster, P. H. (1998). Urban parks as green walls or green magnets? Interracial relations in neighborhood boundary parks. Landscape and Urban Planning, 41(1), 43–55.Google Scholar
  52. Godschalk, D. (2000). Smart growth efforts around the nation. Popular Government, 66(1), 12–20.Google Scholar
  53. Goetzke, F., & Rave, T. (2015). Automobile access, peer effects and happiness. Transportation, 42(5), 791–805.Google Scholar
  54. Gonçalves, J. A. M., da Silva Portugal, L., & Nassi, C. D. (2009). Centrality indicators as an instrument to evaluate the integration of urban equipment in the area of influence of a rail corridor. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 43(1), 13–25.Google Scholar
  55. Guhathakurta, S., & Sadalla, E. (2005). Environment and quality of life: A conceptual analysis and review of empirical literature. In E. Sadalla (Ed.), The US-Mexican border environment: Dynamics of human environment interactions (pp. 229–253). San Diego: San Diego State University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Hagerty, M. R., Cummins, R. A., Ferriss, A. L., Land, K., Michalos, A. C., Peterson, M., et al. (2001). Quality of life indexes for national policy: Review and agenda for research. Social Indicators Research, 55(1), 1–96.Google Scholar
  57. Halloran, T. M. (2012). Better together? Population density and well-being in the United States. Georgetown University. Master’s Thesis. https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/bitstream/handle/10822/557864/Halloran_georgetown_0076M_11732.pdf;sequence=1.
  58. Hardi, P., & Pinter, L. (2006). Perception and evaluation of the quality of life in Florence, Italy. In Sirgy, M. J., Rahtz, D., & Swain, D. (eds.) Community quality-of-life indicators: Best cases II (Vol. 28, pp. 75–176). Social indicators research series. Springer.Google Scholar
  59. Hedges & Company. (2016). United States vehicle ownership data, automobile statistics and trends. https://hedgescompany.com/automotive-market-research-statistics/auto-mailing-lists-and-marketing.
  60. Jeon, C. M., Amekudzi, A. A., & Guensler, R. L. (2010). Evaluating plan alternatives for transportation system sustainability: Atlanta metropolitan region. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 4(4), 227–247.Google Scholar
  61. Joh, K., Nguyen, M. T., & Boarnet, M. G. (2012). Can built and social environmental factors encourage walking among individuals with negative walking attitudes? Journal of Planning Education and Research, 32(2), 219–236.Google Scholar
  62. Kahneman, D., & Deaton, A. (2010). High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(38), 16489–16493.Google Scholar
  63. Kamga, C., & Yazici, M. A. (2014). Achieving environmental sustainability beyond technological improvements: Potential role of high-speed rail in the United States of America. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 31, 148–164.Google Scholar
  64. Karagiannakidis, D., Sdoukopoulos, A., Gavanas, N., & Pitsiava-Latinopoulou, M. (2014). Sustainable urban mobility indicators for medium-sized cities. The case of Serres, Greece. Unpublished Manuscript (Conference Paper). www.researchgate.net/profile/Nikolaos_Gavanas/publication/263614081_Sustainable_urban_mobility_indicators_for_medium-sized_cities_The_case_of_Serres_Greece/links/5593e27108ae1e9cb42ae7cd/Sustainable-urban-mobility-indicators-for-medium-sized-cities-The-case-of-Serres-Greece.pdf.
  65. Karlsson, L. E., Crondahl, K., Sunnemark, F., & Andersson, Å. (2013). The meaning of health, well-being, and quality of life perceived by roma people in west Sweden. Societies, 3(2), 243–260.Google Scholar
  66. Kawabata, M., & Shen, Q. (2006). Job accessibility as an indicator of auto-oriented urban structure: A comparison of Boston and Los Angeles with Tokyo. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 33(1), 115–130.Google Scholar
  67. Klinger, T. (2017). Moving from monomodality to multimodality? Changes in mode choice of new residents. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 104, 221–237.Google Scholar
  68. Knox, P. L. (1980). Measures of accessibility as social indicators: A note. Social Indicators Research, 7(1–4), 367–377.Google Scholar
  69. Lambert, J. H., Joshi, N. N., Peterson, K. D., & Wadie, S. M. (2007). Coordination and diversification of investments in multimodal transportation. Public Works Management & Policy, 11(4), 250–265.Google Scholar
  70. Lera-López, F., Ollo-López, A., & Sánchez-Santos, J. M. (2016). How does physical activity make you feel better? The mediational role of perceived health. Applied Research in Quality of Life, (online first), 1–21.Google Scholar
  71. Lopez, R. P. (2007). Neighborhood risk factors for obesity. Obesity, 15(8), 2111–2119.Google Scholar
  72. Marans, R. W. (2003). Understanding environmental quality through quality of life studies: The 2001 DAS and its use of subjective and objective indicators. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65(1), 73–83.Google Scholar
  73. Marchetti, C. (1994). Anthropological invariants in travel behavior. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 47(1), 75–88.Google Scholar
  74. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: Segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Mathis, S. (2014). What if the best way to end drunk driving is to end driving? The Atlantic: City Lab. Retrieved from https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2014/06/what-if-the-best-way-to-end-drunk-driving-is-to-end-driving/372089/.
  76. Mihyeon Jeon, C., Amekudzi, A. A., & Vanegas, J. (2006). Transportation system sustainability issues in high-, middle-, and low-income economies: Case studies from Georgia (US), South Korea, Colombia, and Ghana. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 132(3), 172–186.Google Scholar
  77. Molotch, H. (1976). The city as a growth machine: Toward a political economy of place. American Journal of Sociology, 82(2), 309–332.Google Scholar
  78. Myers, D. (1987). Community-relevant measurement of quality of life a focus on local trends. Urban Affairs Review, 23(1), 108–125.Google Scholar
  79. Nederveen, A. A. J., Konings, J. W., & Stoop, J. A. (2003). Globalization, international transport and the global environment: Technological innovation, policy making and the reduction of transportation emissions. Transportation Planning and Technology, 26(1), 41–67.Google Scholar
  80. Newman, P. W. (1999). Sustainability and cities: Extending the metabolism model. Landscape and Urban Planning, 44(4), 219–226.Google Scholar
  81. Noland, R. B., & Quddus, M. A. (2005). Congestion and safety: A spatial analysis of London. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 39(7), 737–754.Google Scholar
  82. Osborne, J. W. (2010). Improving your data transformations: Applying the Box-Cox transformation. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 15(12), 1–9.Google Scholar
  83. Ozmen-Ertekin, D., Ozbay, K., & Holguin-Veras, J. (2007). Role of transportation accessibility in attracting new businesses to New Jersey. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 133(2), 138–149.Google Scholar
  84. Phillips, R., & Pittman, R. H. (2009). Measuring progress: Community indicators, best practices, and benchmarking. In R. Phillips & R. H. Pittman (Eds.), An introduction to community development. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  85. Pisarski, A. E., & Terra, N. (1975). American and European transportation responses to the 1973–74 oil embargo. Transportation, 4(3), 291–312.Google Scholar
  86. Polidoro, M., de Lolla, J. A., & Barros, M. V. F. (2012). Sprawling and urban transportation system: Impacts in the city of Londrina, Parana, Brazil. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 7(3), 317–332.Google Scholar
  87. Pucher, J., Buehler, R., Bassett, D. R., & Dannenberg, A. L. (2010). Walking and cycling to health: A comparative analysis of city, state, and international data. American Journal of Public Health, 100(10), 1986–1992.Google Scholar
  88. Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  89. Quinn, J. A. (1940). The Burgess zonal hypothesis and its critics. American Sociological Review, 5(2), 210–218.Google Scholar
  90. Redman, L., Friman, M., Gärling, T., & Hartig, T. (2013). Quality attributes of public transport that attract car users: A research review. Transport Policy, 25, 119–127.Google Scholar
  91. Redmond, L. S., & Mokhtarian, P. L. (2001). The positive utility of the commute: Modeling ideal commute time and relative desired commute amount. Transportation, 28(2), 179–205.Google Scholar
  92. Riggs, W. W., & Gilderbloom, J. (2016). The connection between neighborhood walkability and life longevity in a midsized city. Focus, 13(1), 11–41.Google Scholar
  93. Rondinelli, D. A. (2001). Making metropolitan areas competitive and sustainable in the new economy. Journal of Urban Technology, 8(1), 1–21.Google Scholar
  94. Roseland, M. (2000). Sustainable community development: Integrating environmental, economic, and social objectives. Progress in Planning, 54(2), 73–132.Google Scholar
  95. Rosenberg, M., (2013). Bay area tops new ‘mega-commuter’ census list defining worst trips to work. Contra Costa Times, 4 March 2013. Online (Last accessed March 2017).Google Scholar
  96. Rosenberg, J. L., & Esnard, A. M. (2008). Applying a hybrid scoring methodology to transit site selection. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 134(4), 180–186.Google Scholar
  97. Saha, D., & Paterson, R. G. (2008). Local government efforts to promote the “Three Es” of sustainable development: Survey in medium to large cities in the United States. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 28(1), 21–37.Google Scholar
  98. Savitch, H. V. (1995). Straw men, red herrings, and suburban dependency. Urban Affairs Review, 31(2), 175–179.Google Scholar
  99. Schwartz, S. (1994). The fallacy of the ecological fallacy: The potential misuse of a concept and the consequences. American Journal of Public Health, 84(5), 819–824.Google Scholar
  100. Seghezzo, L. (2009). The five dimensions of sustainability. Environmental Politics, 18(4), 539–556.Google Scholar
  101. Shafer, C. S., Lee, B. K., & Turner, S. (2000). A tale of three greenway trails: User perceptions related to quality of life. Landscape and Urban Planning, 49(3), 163–178.Google Scholar
  102. Shergold, I., Parkhurst, G., & Musselwhite, C. (2012). Rural car dependence: An emerging barrier to community activity for older people. Transportation Planning and Technology, 35(1), 69–85.Google Scholar
  103. Shmueli, G. (2010). To explain or to predict? Statistical Science, 25(3), 289–310.Google Scholar
  104. Sinden, J. A. (1982). Application of quality of life indicators to socioeconomic problems. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 41(4), 401–420.Google Scholar
  105. Sirgy, M. J. (2011). Theoretical perspectives guiding quality of life indicator projects. Social Indicators Research, 103(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  106. Sirgy, M. J., & Cornwell, T. (2001). Further validation of Sirgy et al.’s measure of community quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 56(2), 125–143.Google Scholar
  107. Sirgy, M. J., Michalos, A. C., Ferriss, A. L., Easterlin, R. A., Patrick, D., & Pavot, W. (2006). The quality-of-life (QOL) research movement: Past, present, and future. Social Indicators Research, 76(3), 343–466.Google Scholar
  108. Sirgy, M. J., Widgery, R. N., Lee, D., & Yu, G. B. (2010). Developing a measure of community well-being based on perceptions of impact in various life domains. Social Indicators Research, 96(2), 295–311.Google Scholar
  109. Speck, J. (2013). Walkable City: How downtown can save America, one step at a time. New York, NY: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  110. Sperling, B., & Sander, P. (2004). Cities ranked & rated: More than 400 metropolitan areas evaluated in the US and Canada. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  111. Stehlin, J. (2015). Cycles of investment: Bicycle infrastructure, gentrification, and the restructuring of the San Francisco Bay Area. Environment and Planning A, 47(1), 121–137.Google Scholar
  112. Straatemeier, T. (2008). How to plan for regional accessibility? Transport Policy, 15(2), 127–137.Google Scholar
  113. Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Osterlind, S. J. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Retrieved 1 Feb 2017. http://tocs.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/135813948.pdf.
  114. Talmage, C. A. (2015). Making the ordinary extraordinary: A fresh look at satisfaction in communities. In F. Maggino (Ed.), A new research agenda for improvements in quality of life, social indicators research series (pp. 61–86). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  115. Teunissen, T., Sarmiento, O., Zuidgeest, M., & Brussel, M. (2015). Mapping equality in access: The case of Bogotá’s sustainable transportation initiatives. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 9(7), 457–467.Google Scholar
  116. U.S. Census Bureau. (2015). Selected economic characteristics. In 20112015 American community survey 5-year estimates. Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/.
  117. U.S. Department of Transportation (2016). Road and bridge data by state. Grow America: U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.transportation.gov/policy-initiatives/grow-america/road-and-bridge-data-state.
  118. Urban Transportation Task Force. (2012). The high cost of congestion in Canadian cities. Council of Ministers Transportation and Highway Safety. Technical Report.Google Scholar
  119. Von Rueden, U., Gosch, A., Rajmil, L., Bisegger, C., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2006). Socioeconomic determinants of health related quality of life in childhood and adolescence: Results from a European study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60(2), 130–135.Google Scholar
  120. Wallace, J., & Cornelius, N. (2010). Community development and social regeneration: How the third sector addresses the needs of BME communities in post-industrial cities. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(1), 43–54.Google Scholar
  121. Wallbaum, H., Krank, S., & Teloh, R. (2010). Prioritizing sustainability criteria in urban planning processes: Methodology application. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 137(1), 20–28.Google Scholar
  122. Warner, J. B. (2006). The Jacksonville, Florida experience. In Sirgy, M. J., Rahtz, D., & Swain, D. (eds) Community quality-of-life indicators: Best cases II (Vol. 28, pp. 1–22). Social indicators research series. Springer.Google Scholar
  123. Watts, A. L. (2001). Education and the common good: Social benefits of higher education in Kentucky. Frankfort, KY: Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center.Google Scholar
  124. Winters, M., Brauer, M., Setton, E. M., & Teschke, K. (2013). Mapping bikeability: A spatial tool to support sustainable travel. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 40(5), 865–883.Google Scholar
  125. Zhou, B., & Kockelman, K. M. (2011). Opportunities for and impacts of carsharing: A survey of the Austin, Texas market. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 5(3), 135–152.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hobart and William Smith CollegesGenevaUSA
  2. 2.University of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations