The Evolution of Educational Inequalities in Spain: Dynamic Evidence from Repeated Cross-Sections
- 182 Downloads
A lack of longitudinal data prevents many countries from estimating dynamic models and, thus, from obtaining valuable evidence for policymaking in the field of education. This is the case of Spain, where recent education reforms have targeted secondary schools, but their design has been based on incomplete information regarding the evolution of student performance and far from robust evidence concerning just when educational inequalities are generated. This paper addresses the absence of longitudinal data required for performing such analyses by using a dynamic model with repeated cross-sectional data. We are able to link the reading competencies of students from the same cohort that participated in two international assessments at different ages (9/10 and 15/16) and so identify when educational gaps—in terms of gender, socio-economic status and place of birth—emerge. Our results suggest that educational inequalities in Spain originate in lower educational levels. These results stress the importance of early intervention for improving performance during the compulsory education and for tackling educational inequalities.
KeywordsAcademic achievement Educational inequalities Pseudo-panel PIRLS PISA
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Areces Foundation through its XIII National Contest for Research in Social Sciences and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (project EDU2016-76414-R).
- Almond, D., & Currie, J. (2011). Human capital development before age five. In O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (Eds.), Handbook of labor economics (Vol. 4B, pp. 1315–1486). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Carneiro, P., & Heckman, J. (2004). Human capital policy. In J. Heckman & A. Krueger (Eds.), Inequality in America: What role for human capital policies (pp. 77–240). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Choi, Á., & Calero, J. (2013). Determinantes del riesgo de fracaso escolar en España en PISA-2009 y propuestas de reforma. Revista de Educación, 362, 562–593.Google Scholar
- Crawford, C., Dearden, L. & Greaves, E. (2007a). The impact of age within academic year on adult outcomes. IFS Working Paper W13/07.Google Scholar
- Crawford, C., Dearden, L. & Greaves, E. (2013). When you are born matters: evidence for England. Report R80. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies.Google Scholar
- Crawford, C., Dearden, L. & Meghir, C. (2007b). When you are born matters: the impact of date of birth on child cognitive outcomes in England. Report. London: Centre for the Economics of EducationGoogle Scholar
- Guio, J., Choi, Á & Escardíbul, J-O. (2017). Labor markets, academic performance and school dropout risk: Evidence for Spain. International of Manpower, 10.1108/IJM-08-2016-0158.
- Hanushek, E., & Wößmann, L. (2011). The economics of international differences in educational achievement. In E. A. Hanushek, S. Machin, & L. Wößmann (Eds.), Handbook of economics of education (Vol. 3, pp. 89–200). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Heckman, J. (2011). The economics of inequality: The value of early childhood education. American Educator, 35, 31–35.Google Scholar
- Hox, J. (1995). Applied multilevel analysis. Amsterdam: TT-Publikaties.Google Scholar
- MEC (2016). TIMSS 2015. Estudio Internacional de Tendencias en Matemáticas y Ciencias. Informe Español: Resultado y Contexto. MEC: Madrid.Google Scholar
- Mullis, I., Martin, M., Kennedy, A. & Foy. P. (2007). PIRLS 2006 International Report. Boston. MA: Lynch School of Education, Boston CollegeGoogle Scholar
- OECD. (2014a). PISA 2012 results in focus: What 15-year-olds know and what they can do with what they know. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2014b). PISA 2012 technical report. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2016). PISA 2015 results (volume I): Excellence and equity in education. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Smith, J. (2009). Can regression discontinuity help answer an age-old question in education? The effect of age on elementary and secondary school achievement. The B.E. Journal of Economics Analysis & Policy, 9, 1–30.Google Scholar
- StataCorp. (2013). Stata Multiple Imputation: Reference Manual. Release 13. Texas: Stata Press.Google Scholar
- Willms, D. (2006). Learning divides. Ten policy questions about the peroformance and equity of schools and schooling systems. Montreal: UNESCO.Google Scholar