Social Indicators Research

, Volume 137, Issue 1, pp 139–165 | Cite as

The Effects of Modern Treaties and Opt-In Legislation on Household Incomes in Aboriginal Communities

  • Krishna Pendakur
  • Ravi Pendakur


We use data from the Canadian Censuses (1991–2006) and National Household Survey (2011) to examine how household incomes vary across Aboriginal communities with and without modern agreements. These agreements include self-government, comprehensive land claims and opt-in legislation regarding financial and land management authority. Using a difference-in-difference regression methodology, we find that standalone comprehensive land claims agreements, both with and without associated self government agreements, are associated with income gains for Aboriginal households, primarily through increased labour income. Joint opt-in arrangements combining fiscal and land management authority are associated with smaller income gains. But, other agreement types are not associated with increased household incomes. We also find evidence of continued income growth for CLCAs in the medium term. Finally, we find that income gains—where they are found—are much larger for non-Aboriginal households than for Aboriginal households.


Aboriginal self-governance Household income Aboriginal agreements 



We would like to thank John Clement and Diana Lepa from Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada for their comments and suggestions. We would also like to thank Judith Moe for her help on this paper. This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of Social Sciences Building (6th Floor)University of OttawaOttawaCanada

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