The most recent of literature focuses more often on the happiness of tourists, rather than the happiness of residents affected by tourism. However, this study aims at filling this gap with a new and refreshing perspective. This is carried out by using the European Social Survey (2010–2012) merged with Eurostat tourism data at the province (NUTS2) level. Staying consistent with homophily or ingroup preference theories, we find that domestic tourists contribute more to the happiness of locals than foreign tourists. Also by staying consistent with Irridex theory, we find that tourism at low levels of development contributes more to happiness than tourism at a high level of development.
KeywordsTourism Happiness Life satisfaction Subjective wellbeing (Swb) European social survey (Ess)
- Abrams, L (2014) Mount Everest’s massive trash problem: Nepal cracks down on littering tourists, Salon.Google Scholar
- Chon, K. S., & Olsen, M. D. (1991). Functional and symbolic approaches to consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction in tourism. Journal of International Academy of Hospitality Research., 28, 1–20.Google Scholar
- Doxey, G. V. (1975) A causation theory of visitor-resident irritants: Methodology and research inferences, In The impact of tourism. Sixth Annual Conference Proceedings of the Travel Research Association.Google Scholar
- Eurostat (2013) Regional disparities in nights spent in tourist accommodation establishments by NUTS level 2 region 2013. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/images/3/39/Regional_disparities_in_nights_spent_in_tourist_accommodation_establishments%2C_by_NUTS_level_2_region%2C_2013_%28%C2%B9%29_%28%25_of_total_nights_spent%29_RYB15.pngAccessed 1 Dec 2015.
- Fox, R. (1994). The challenge of anthropology: Old encounters and new excursions. Piscataway NJ: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
- Fu, F., C. E. Tarnita, N. A. Christakis, L. Wang, D. G. Rand, & M. A. Nowak (2012) Evolution of in-group favoritism, Scientific Reports, 2.Google Scholar
- Harvey, D. (2014). Seventeen contradictions and the end of capitalism. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Kinder, D. R., & Kam, C. D. (2010). US against them: Ethnocentric foundations of American opinion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Maryanski, A., & Turner, J. H. (1992). The social cage: Human nature and the evolution of society. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Okulicz-Kozaryn, A. (2015). Happiness and place. Why life is better outside of the city. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
- Smelser, N. J., & Alexander, J. C. (1999). Diversity and its discontents: cultural conflict and common ground in contemporary American society. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, J. A., Marsh, J., & Mendoza-Denton, R. (Eds.). (2010). Are We Born Racist? New Insights from Neuroscience and Positive Psychology. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
- Sorensen, J. B. (2012) Endogeneity is a fancy word for a simple problem, Unpublished.Google Scholar
- UNEP (2016): Tourism’s three main impact areas. http://www.unep.org/resourceefficiency/Business/SectoralActivities/Tourism/TheTourismandEnvironmentProgramme/FactsandFiguresaboutTourism/ImpactsofTourism/EnvironmentalImpacts/TourismsThreeMainImpactAreas/tabid/78776/Default.aspx Accessed 1 June 2016.
- Veenhoven, R. (2014) Livability Theory, Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research, 3645–3647.Google Scholar
- Wilson, E. O. (2012). On human nature. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Yamada, N., J. Heo, C. King, & Y.-Y. Fu (2009) Life satisfaction of urban residents: Do health perception, wealth, safety, community pride and, and cultural tourism matter? 2009 ICHRIE Conference.Google Scholar
- Zukin, S. (2009). Naked city: The death and life of authentic urban places. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar