Social Indicators Research

, Volume 134, Issue 1, pp 1–38 | Cite as

A Worldwide Measure of Societal Quality of Life

  • J. Haavard MaridalEmail author


This paper proposes a comprehensive new measure of societal quality of life (QOL) at the national level. Focusing on livability, the environmental, external factors that constitute a society’s QOL this measure derives from a novel and multifaceted analysis of subjective wellbeing data. In determining what people actually value, the measure allows for a comprehensive cross-country comparison of QOL that complements normative objective-list or capabilities approaches. The analysis supports the five broad categories of Community and Relationships, Freedom and Opportunity, Health and Environment, Living Standard, and Peace and Security as antecedents to QOL. Current measures overlook or deemphasize aspects of these elements. This paper explains the methodology used to construct the index and, provides complete country rankings of QOL for 143 countries since 2000.


Quality of life Subjective-wellbeing Happiness Life satisfactions Quantitative methods Statistical data analysis Measurement Indicators 


  1. Ahn, N., & Mochón, F. (2007). La felicidad de los españoles: Factores explicativos. Revista de Economía Aplicada, XVIII(54), 5–31.Google Scholar
  2. Alesina, A., Di Tella, R., & MacCulloch, R. (2004). Inequality and happiness: Are Europeans and Americans different? Journal of Public Economics, 88(9), 2009–2042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arneson, R. J. (1999). Human flourishing versus desire satisfaction. Social Philosophy and Policy, 16(1), 113–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Augustine, S. (1972). Concerning the city of God against the pagans (H. Bettenson, Trans.). Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. (ca. 410).Google Scholar
  6. Bentler, P. M. (1992). On the fit of models to covariances and methodology to the Bulletin. Psychological Bulletin, 112(3), 400–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berg, M., & Veenhoven, R. (2010). Income inequality and happiness in 119 nations: in search for an optimum that does not appear to exist. In B. Greve (Ed.), Social policy and happiness in Europe (pp. 174–194). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  8. Block, J., & Philipp, K. (2009). I can’t get no satisfaction-necessity entrepreneurship and procedural utility. Kyklos, 62(2), 191–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bollen, K. A., & Pearl, J. (2013). Eight myths about causality and structural equation models. In Handbook of causal analysis for social research (pp. 301–328). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Bollen, K. A., & Ting, K. (2000). A tetra test for causal indicators. Psychological Methods, 5, 3–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brooks, A. C. (2008a). Free people are happy people. City Journal, 18(2). Retrieved from
  13. Brooks, A. C. (2008b). Gross national happiness: Why happiness matters for America—And how we can get more of it. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  14. Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rodgers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life: Perceptions, evaluations, and satisfactions. New York, NY: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Cantril, H. (1965). The pattern of human concerns. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Carmines, E. G., & McIver, J. P. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables: Analysis of covariance structures. In G. W. Bohrnstedt & E. F. Borgatta (Eds.), Social measurement: Current issues (pp. 65–115). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Costanza, R., Fisher, B., Ali, S., Beer, C., Bond, L., Boumans, R., et al. (2007). Quality of life: An approach integrating opportunities, human needs, and subjective wellbeing. Ecological Economics, 61(2–3), 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55, 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Diener, E., Diener, M., & Diener, C. (1995). Factors predicting the subjective wellbeing of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 851–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Diener, E., Gohm, C. L., Suh, E., & Oishi, S. (2000). Similarity of the relations between marital status and subjective wellbeing across cultures. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 31(4), 419–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diener, E., Kahneman, D., Tov, W., & Arora, R. (2010). Income’s association with judgments of life versus feelings. In E. Diener, D. Kahneman, & J. F. Helliwell (Eds.), International differences in wellbeing (pp. 3–15). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Diener, E., Lucas, R., & Scollon, C. N. (2006). Beyond the hedonic treadmill: Revising the adaptation theory of wellbeing. American Psychologist, 61(4), 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1997). Measuring quality of life: Economic, social, and subjective indicators. Social Indicators Research, 40(1–2), 189–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DiStefano, C., & Morgan, G. B. (2014). A comparison of diagonal weighted least squares robust estimation techniques for ordinal data. Structural Equation Modeling, 21(3), 425–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dolan, P., Layard, R., & Metcalfe, R. (2011). Measuring subjective wellbeing for public policy. Newport: Office for National Statistics.Google Scholar
  29. Dolan, P., Peasgood, T., & White, M. P. (2008). Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective wellbeing. Journal of Economic Psychology, 29, 94–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dolan, P., & White, M. P. (2007). How can measures of subjective wellbeing be used to inform public policy. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(1), 71–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Drummond, N. (2000). Quality of life with asthma: The existential and the aesthetic. Sociology of Health & Illness, 22(2), 235–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Edwards, J. R. (2001). Multidimensional constructs in organizational behavior research: An integrative analytical framework. Organizational Research Methods, 4(2), 144–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Edwards, J. R. (2011). The fallacy of formative measurement. Organizational Research Methods, 14(2), 370–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eger, R. J., & Maridal, J. H. (2015). A statistical meta-analysis of the wellbeing literature. International Journal of Wellbeing, 5(2), 45–74. doi: 10.5502/ijw.v5i2.4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fave, A. D., Brdar, I., Freire, T., Vella-Brodrick, D., & Wissing, M. P. (2011). The eudaimonic and hedonic components of happiness: Qualitative and quantitative findings. Social Indicators Research, 100(2), 185–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A., & Frijters, P. (2004). How important is methodology for the estimates of the determinants of happiness? Economic Journal, 114(497), 641–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frankl, V. E. (2006). Man‘s search for meaning (I. Lasch, Trans.). Boston, MA: Beacon Press. (1946).Google Scholar
  39. Frisch, M. B. (2013). Evidence-based well-being/positive psychology assessment and intervention with quality of life therapy and coaching and the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI). Social Indicators Research, 114, 193–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gliem, J. A., & Gliem, R. R. (2003, October). Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach‘s alpha reliability coefficient for Likert-type scales. Paper presented at the midwest research-to-practice conference in adult, continuing, and community education, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.Google Scholar
  41. Gorsuch, R. L. (1983). Factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  42. Graham, C. (2008). Happiness and health: Lessons—and questions—For public policy. Health Affairs, 27(1), 72–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Graham, C. (2010). The challenges of incorporating empowerment into the HDI: Some lessons from happiness economics and quality of life research (Human Development Reports Research Paper 2010/13). New York, NY: United Nations Development Program. Retrieved from
  44. Graham, C. (2011). The pursuit of happiness: An economy of well-being. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  45. Graham, C., & Nikolova, M. (2015). Benthamor Aristotle in the development process? An empirical investigation of capabilities and subjective well-being. World Development, 68, 163–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Greene, W. H. (2003). Econometric analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  47. Gundelach, P., & Kreiner, S. (2004). Happiness and life-satisfaction in advanced European countries. Cross-Cultural Research, 38(4), 359–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hair, J. F, Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  49. Hall, J. (2013). From capabilities to contentment: Testing the links between human development and life satisfaction. In J. F. Helliwell, R. Layard & J. Sachs (Eds.), World Happiness Report 2013 (pp. 138–153).Google Scholar
  50. Hancock, G. R., & Mueller, R. O. (2001). Rethinking construct reliability within latent variable systems. In R. Cudeck, S. du Toit, & D. Sörbom (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: Present and future—A festschrift in honor of Karl Jöreskog. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.Google Scholar
  51. Hancock, G. R., & Mueller, R. O. (Eds.). (2006). Structural equation modeling: A second course. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  52. Helliwell, J. F., Barrington-Leigh, C., Harris, A., & Huang, H. (2009). International evidence on the social context of wellbeing (NBER Working Paper No. 14720). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  53. Hershberger, S. L. (2003). The growth of structural equation modeling: 1994–2001. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 10, 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Heylighen, F. (1999). Happiness. In F. Heylighen, C. Joslyn, & V. Turchin (Eds.), Principia Cybernetica Web. Brussels: Principia Cybernetica. Retrieved from
  55. Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1073–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Howell, R. D., Breivik, E., & Wilcox, J. B. (2007a). Is formative measurement really measurement? Reply to Bollen (2007) and Bagozzi (2007). Psychological Methods, 12, 238–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Howell, R. D., Breivik, E., & Wilcox, J. B. (2007b). Reconsidering formative measurement. Psychological Methods, 12, 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kahneman, D. (1999). Objective happiness. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Wellbeing: Foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 3–25). New York, NY: Sage.Google Scholar
  60. Kahneman, D., & Deaton A. (2010, September 7). High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional wellbeing. PNAS Early Edition. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1011492107.
  61. Kahneman, D., & Krueger, A. B. (2006). Developments in the measurement of subjective wellbeing. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(1), 3–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 35(4), 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kenny, D. A., & McCoach, D. B. (2003). Effect of the number of variables on measures of fit in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 10(3), 333–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Koszegi, B., & Rabin, M. (2007). Mistakes in choice-based welfare analysis. American Economic Review, 97(2), 477–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lane, R. E. (2000). The loss of happiness in market democracies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Layard, R. (2005). Happiness: Lessons from a new science. New York, NY: Penguin.Google Scholar
  67. Layard, R., Mayraz, G., & Nickell, S. (2008). The marginal utility of income. Journal of Public Economics, 52(8), 1846–1857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lim, C., & Putnam, R. (2010). Religion, social networks, and life satisfaction. American Sociological Review, 75(6), 914–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of wellbeing measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(3), 616–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2011). Construct measurement and validation procedures in MIS and behavior research: Integrating new and existing techniques. MIS Quarterly, 35, 293–334.Google Scholar
  72. MacKerron, G. (2012). Happiness economics from 35000 feet. Journal of Economic Surveys, 26(4), 705–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Maggino, F. (2009). Methodological aspects and technical approaches in measuring subjective well-being. Firenze: Firenze University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Maggino, F. (2014). Assessing the subjective well-being of nations. In Global handbook of quality of life: Exploration of well-being of nations and continents (pp. 803–830). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  75. Malhotra, N., & Birks, D. (2007). Marketing research: An applied approach (3rd European ed.). Harlow: Prentice Hall/Financial Times.Google Scholar
  76. Maridal, J. H., & Eger, R. (2010). Human prosperity. Global Business & Economics Anthology, 2010(1), 268–280.Google Scholar
  77. McCoy, E. S., Taylor-Blake, B., Street, S. E., Pribisko, A. L., Zheng, J., & Zylka, M. J. (2013). Peptidergic CGRPa primary sensory neurons encode heat and itch and tonically suppress sensitivity to cold. Neuron, 78(1), 138–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McMahon, D. M. (2006). Happiness: A history. New York, NY: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  79. Moynihan, D. P., & Pandey, S. K. (2007). Finding workable levers over work motivation comparing job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. Administration & Society, 39(7), 803–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Murphy, K. M., & Topel, R. H. (2003). The economic value of medical research. In K. M. Murphy & R. H. Topel (Eds.), Measuring the gains from medical research: An economic approach. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Murray, C. (1988). In pursuit: Of happiness and good government. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  82. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  83. Nussbaum, M. C. (2003). Capabilities as fundamental entitlements: Sen and social justice. Feminist Economics, 5(2/3), 33–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Oishi, S. (2012). The psychological wealth of nations: Do happy people make a happy society?. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Oishi, S., Graham, J., Kesebir, S., & Galinha, I. C. (2013). Concepts of happiness across time and cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(5), 559–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Oishi, S., & Roth, D. P. (2009). The role of self-reports in culture and personality research: It is too early to give up on self-reports. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(1), 107–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Parfit, D. (1984). Reasons and persons. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  88. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5(2), 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Putnam, R. D., & Lim, C. (2010). Religion, social networks, and subjective well-being. American Sociological Review, 75(5), 914–933.Google Scholar
  90. Reker, G. T., Peacock, E. J., & Wong, P. T. P. (1987). Meaning and purpose in life and well-being: A life-span perspective. Journal of Gerontology, 42, 44–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rözer, J., & Kraaykamp, G. (2013). Income inequality and subjective wellbeing: A cross-national study on the conditional effects of individual and national characteristics. Social Indicators Research, 113(3), 1009–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2006). Best news yet on the six-factor model of wellbeing. Social Science Research, 35(4), 1103–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sáiz-Álvarez, J. M., Martínez, A. C., & Martínez, C. C.-A. (2014). An entrepreneurial well-being model based on GEM data for Spain. IJIMAI, 2(5), 38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Scanlon, T. (1993). Value, desire, and quality of life. In M. C. Nussbaum & A. Sen (Eds.), The quality of life (pp. 185–200). Oxford: Clarendon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schimmack, U. (2008). The structure of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 97–123). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  96. Schwarz, N., & Strack, F. (1999). Reports of subjective wellbeing: Judgmental processes and their methodological implications. In D. Kahneman, E. D. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 61–84). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  97. Seligman, M. E. P. (1990). Learned optimism. New York, NY: Pocket Books.Google Scholar
  98. Sen, A. (1985). Commodities and capabilities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Sen, A. (1999). Development as freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Sen, A. (2002). Rationality and freedom. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Sen, A. (2005). Human rights and capabilities. Journal of Human Development, 6(2), 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Senik, C. (2008). Is man doomed to progress? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 68(1), 140–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Spector, P. (1992). Summated rating scale construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stevens, J. P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (4th ed.). Hillsdale, NS: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  105. Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2013). Subjective wellbeing and income: Is there any evidence of satiation? American Economic Review, 103(3), 598–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stiglitz, J., Sen, A., & Fitoussi, J. (2009). Report by the commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. Retrieved from
  107. Stolle, D. (1998). Psychological approaches to social capital. Political Psychology, 19(3), 497–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sumner, L. W. (1996). Welfare, happiness, and ethics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  109. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  110. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  111. Tavits, M. (2008). Representation, corruption, and subjective well-being. Comparative Political Studies, 41(12), 1607–1630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. The Economist. (2012). The lottery of life methodology. Retrieved from December 1, 2015.
  113. Tov, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The wellbeing of nations: Linking together trust, cooperation, and democracy. In B. A. Sullivan, M. Snyder, & J. L. Sullivan (Eds.), Cooperation: The political psychology of effective human interaction (pp. 323–342). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  114. Van Praag, B. M. S., Frijters, P., & Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A. (2003). The anatomy of subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 51(1), 29–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Veenhoven, R. (1991a). Is happiness relative? Social Indicators Research, 24(1), 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Veenhoven, R. (1991b). Questions on happiness: Classical topics, modern answers, blind spots. In F. Strack, M. Argyle, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Subjective wellbeing: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 7–26). Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  117. Veenhoven, R. (1993). Happiness in nations: Subjective appreciation of life in 56 nations (1946–1992). Rotterdam: Institute for Social Policy Research, Erasmus University Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  118. Veenhoven, R. (2000). The four qualities of life: Ordering concepts and measures of the good life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 1(1), 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Veenhoven, R. (2008). Sociological theories of subjective wellbeing. In M. R. Eid & R. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective wellbeing: A tribute to Ed Diener (pp. 44–61). New York, NY: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  120. Veenhoven, R. (2012). Evidence-based pursuit of happiness: What should we know, do we know and can we get to know? (Erasmus Happiness Economics Research Organization White Paper nr 1). Rotterdam: Erasmus University Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  121. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Weiner, E. (2008). The geography of bliss: One grump‘s search for the happiest places in the world. New York, NY: Twelve/Hachette Book Group.Google Scholar
  123. Weiss, A., Bates, T. C., & Luciano, M. (2008). Happiness is a personal(ity) thing: The genetics of personality and wellbeing in a representative sample. Psychological Science, 15(3), 205–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wilkinson, W. (2007). In pursuit of happiness research: Is it reliable? What does it imply for policy? Policy Analysis, 590, 1–41.Google Scholar
  125. Wong, S. (1978). Foundations of Paul Samuelson’s revealed preference theory: A study by the method of rational reconstruction. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zak, P. J. (2011). Moral markets. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 77(2), 212–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Sources of Variables in World QOL Measure

  1. Cingranelli, D. L., & Richards, D. L. (2013). The CingranelliRichards (CIRI) human rights dataset (Dataset version 2013.12.05). Retrieved October 17, 2013, from
  2. DeRose, L. F. (2013). Young adolescents living with both natural parents throughout the world (Unpublished raw data). College Park, MD: Maryland Center for Population Research.Google Scholar
  3. Emerson, J. W., Hsu, A., Levy, M. A., de Sherbinin, A., Mara, V., Esty, D. C., & Jaiteh, M. (2012). 2012 environmental performance index and pilot trend environmental performance index. New Haven, CT: Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy. Retrieved from
  4. Freedom House. (2013). Freedom in the world: Country ratings and status, 19732013. Retrieved from
  5. Gallup, Inc. (2013). Gallup world poll. Retrieved December 20, 2013, from
  6. Gwartney, J., Lawson, R., & Hall, J. (2013). 2013 Economic freedom dataset, published in Economic freedom of the world: 2013 Annual report. Vancouver: Fraser Institute. Retrieved from
  7. Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M. (2013). Worldwide governance indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved December 20, 2013, from
  8. Marshall, M. G. (2013). Major episodes of political violence and conflict regions, 19462012. Vienna, VA: Center for Systemic Peace. Retrieved from
  9. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2013). Demographic yearbook. New York, NY: United Nations. Retrieved from
  10. World Bank. (2005). GINI index. Retrieved from
  11. World Bank. (2013a). Doing business. Retrieved December 20, 2013, from
  12. World Bank. (2013b). World development indicators. Retrieved December 20, 2013, from
  13. World Health Organization. (2013). WHO mortality database. Retrieved December 20, 2013, from
  14. World Values Survey. (1981–2005). Official Data File v.15. World Values Survey Association ( Aggregate File Producer: ASEP/JDS, Madrid.
  15. Zak, P. J. (2011). Moral markets. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 77(2), 212–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hankammer School of BusinessBaylor UniversityWacoUSA

Personalised recommendations