Social Indicators Research

, Volume 132, Issue 3, pp 1163–1192 | Cite as

What Aspects of Society Matter for the Quality of Life of a Minority? Global Evidence from the New Gay Happiness Index

  • Niclas Berggren
  • Christian Bjørnskov
  • Therese NilssonEmail author


There is great variation in views on and treatment of minorities such as gay men across the world. We are the first to pinpoint what features of societies are beneficial to gay men’s quality of life by using a unique new cross-country dataset covering 110 countries, the Gay Happiness Index. It covers how gays perceive public opinion about them, how they experience behavior towards them and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our study is based on the premise that it is important to look at minority-specific effects of policies and institutions and not solely at the effects for the average citizen, as well as the transmission mechanisms through which policies and institutions affect life satisfaction. We find that factors such as equal legal rights for gay people, GDP per capita, democracy and globalization relate positively to the quality of life of gay men, primarily by shaping public opinion and behavior in a pro-gay direction. Religion (the shares of Muslims and Orthodox Christians) and living in a post-communist country tend to relate negatively to our quality of life indicators. Most of these factors have been shown to matter for the well-being of people in general as well, which may be taken to suggest that gay people benefit from being included in society—legally, socially and economically—on the same terms as others.


Gay Minorities Happiness Well-being Life satisfaction Institutions 



The authors wish to thank Andreas Bergh, Jerg Gutmann, Martin Rode, Reto Odermatt and participants of the 17th Danish Public Choice Workshop (Copenhagen, 2016), the Public Choice Society conference (Fort Lauderdale, 2016) and the European Public Choice Society meeting (Freiburg, 2016) for helpful comments and the Swedish Research Council (Berggren and Nilsson), Torsten Söderberg’s Foundation (Berggren and Nilsson), the Czech Science Foundation (Grant 16-19934S) (Berggren and Nilsson) and the Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation (Bjørnskov) for financial support.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 53 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niclas Berggren
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christian Bjørnskov
    • 1
    • 3
  • Therese Nilsson
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)StockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of Institutional, Environmental and Experimental Economics (KIE)University of Economics in PraguePraha 3Czech Republic
  3. 3.Department of Economics and BusinessAarhus UniversityAarhus VDenmark
  4. 4.Department of EconomicsLund UniversityLundSweden

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