Social Indicators Research

, Volume 130, Issue 2, pp 779–797 | Cite as

International Migration, Remittances Inflow and Household Welfare: An Intra Village Comparison from Pakistan

  • Mohisn Javed
  • Masood Sarwar Awan
  • Muhammad WaqasEmail author


This study explores the financial costs, time involved in migration and benefits at household level. A household survey has been conducted to investigate about characteristics of migrants, transaction costs and sources of financing by which overseas migration is financed. Results of PSM technique explored that overseas migration conveys worthwhile benefits as measured by their total expenditures, food expenditures, non-food expenditures, clothing expenditures, expenditures on pots and pans, expenditures on vehicles and saving levels. Establishment of technical training institutions, creation of micro-finance institutions and enhancing their functioning as well as sensitization about ‘Pakistan Remittance Initiative’ would be some of the policy options in order to tackle with the problem.


International migration Remittances Pakistan 


  1. Acosta, P., Fajnzylber, P., & Lopez, J. H. (2007). The impact of remittances on poverty and human development: Evidence from Latin American household surveys. Working Paper No. 4247, World Bank.Google Scholar
  2. Airola, J. (2007). The use of remittance income in Mexico. International Migration Review, 41(4), 850–859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anyanwu, J. C., & Erhijakpor, A. E. O. (2010). Do international remittances affect poverty in Africa? African Development Review, 22(1), 51–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Crush, J., & Frayne, B. (2007). The migration and development nexus in Southern Africal introduction. Development Southern Africa, 24(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cuong, N. V. (2008). Impacts of international and internal remittances on household welfare: Evidence from Viet Nam. Paper No. 25770, MPRA.Google Scholar
  6. D’agostino, R. B. (1998). Tutorial in Biostatistics propensity score methods for bias reduction in the comparison of a treatment to a non-randomized control group. Statistical Medicine, 17, 2265–2281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D’Istano, F., Fouskas, P., & Verde, M. (2015). Determinants of well-being among legal and illegal immigrants: Evidence from South Italy. Social Indicators Research,. doi: 10.1007/s11205-015-0924-7.Google Scholar
  8. Dehejia, R. H., & Wahba, S. (1999). Casual effects in non-experimental studies: Reevaluating the evaluation of training programs. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 94(448), 1053–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Government of India. (1908). Digital South Asia Library, Imperial Gazetter of India, 23, 406. Accessed 10 March 2013.
  10. Government of Pakistan (1998). Statistics Division, Population Census Organization, District Census Report of Toba Tek Singh.Google Scholar
  11. Gupta, S., Pattillo, C. A., & Wagh, S. (2009). Effect of remittances on poverty and financial development in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, 37(1), 104–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Heinrich, C., Maffioli, A. & Vazquez, G. (2010). A premier for applying propensity Score Matching.Technical Notes No. IDB-TN-161, Office of Strategic Planning and Development Effectiveness, Inter-American Development Bank.Google Scholar
  13. Jones, H., & Kittisuksathit, S. (2003). International labour migration and quality of life: Findings from rural Thailand. International Journal of Population Geography, 9, 517–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Koc, I., & Onan, I. (2004). International migrants’ remittances and welfare status of the left-behind families in Turkey. International Migration Review, 38(1), 78–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lokshin, M., Osmolovski, M. B., & Glinskaya, E. (2010). Work-related migration and poverty reduction in Nepal. Review of Development Economics, 14(2), 323–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mansuri, G. (2006). Migration, school attainment, and child labor: evidence from rural Pakistan. Working paper No. 3945, World Bank.Google Scholar
  17. Maposa, F. (2007). Remittances and development: The impact of migration to South Africa on rural livelihoods in Southern Zimbabwe. Development Southern Africa, 24(1), 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mckenzie, D., Gibson, J. & Stillman, S. (2006). How important is selection? Experimental vs non-experimental measures of the income gains from migration, Working Paper in Economics No. 3/06, Department of Economics, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  19. Rosenbaum, D. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70(1), 41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Satti, S. L., Hassan, M. S., & Hayat, F. (2015). Economic growth and flow of remittances. Social Indicators Research,. doi: 10.1007/s11205-015-1003-9.Google Scholar
  21. Sharma, M. P. (2013). International contract-based migration, remittances, and household well-being in the western province of Sri Lanka. International Migration, 51(S1), 216–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sharma, M. & Zaman, H. (2009). Who migrates overseas and is it worth their while? An assessment of household survey data from Bangladesh.Working Paper No. 5018, World Bank.Google Scholar
  23. State Bank of Pakistan. (2015). Accessed 20 August 2015.
  24. The World Bank (2014). Migration and development brief. Migration and Remittances Team, Development Prospects Group.
  25. United Nations (2013). UN News Centre, New York. Accessed 11 October 2013.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohisn Javed
    • 1
  • Masood Sarwar Awan
    • 1
  • Muhammad Waqas
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of SargodhaSargodhaPakistan

Personalised recommendations