Environmental Factors Affecting Health Indicators in Sub-Saharan African Countries: Health is Wealth
Sub-Saharan African countries faced severe environmental hazards that affect the health and wealth of the countries. The study utilized number of environmental factors including carbon dioxide emissions, energy use, fossil fuel energy consumption, land used under cereal production, household final consumption expenditures and water sanitation facility that have a promising impact on African’s health. The study considered four health variables including external resources for health, health expenditures per capita, life expectancy at birth and out-of-pocket expenditures for seven selected Sub-Saharan African countries namely, Botswana, Cameroon, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Sudan for panel data estimations, over the period of 1995–2013. The results confirmed that environmental factors affect the African’s health i.e., carbon dioxide emissions increases the health expenditures per capita, while it decreases the external resource of health in a region. Fossil fuel energy consumption increases the external resources of health and life expectancy while it decreases the out-of-pocket expenditures of the African countries. Life expectancy significantly decreases the external resource of health. Finally, inadequate water sanitation increases the healthcare expenditures while it decreases the external resources of health and life expectancy in Sub-Saharan African countries.
KeywordsHealth Environment Air pollution Fossil fuel energy consumption Sub-Saharan African countries Panel techniques
- Adair-Rohani, H., Zukor, K., Bonjour, S., Wilburn, S., Kuesel, A. C., Hebert, R., & Fletcher, E. R. (2013). Limited electricity access in health facilities of Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review of data on electricity access, sources, and reliability. Global Health: Science and Practice, 1(2), 249–261.Google Scholar
- AFDB. (2012). Renewable energy in Africa. African Development Bank Group. http://www.afdb.org/en/blogs/afdb-championing-inclusive-growth-across-africa/post/renewable-energy-in-africa-8829/. Accessed January 8, 2015.
- Akhmat, G., Zaman, K., Shukui, T., Sajjad, F., Khan, M. A., & Khan, M. Z. (2014c). The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: Evidence from a panel of developed countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(12), 7425–7435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Alam, A., Azam, M., Abdullah, A. B., Malik, I. A., Khan, A., Hamzah, T. A. A. T., et al. (2014). Environmental quality indicators and financial development in Malaysia: Unity in diversity. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(11), 8392–8404.Google Scholar
- ICSU. (2007). Natural and human-induced hazards and disasters in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Council of Science, Africa. http://www.icsu.org/icsu-africa/publications/reports-and-reviews/icsu-roa-science-plan-on-hazards-disasters/Doc%20SP03.1_ICSU%20ROA%20Science%20Plan%20-%20Hazards%20and%20Disasters.pdf. Accessed January 8, 2014.
- Qureshi, M. I., Rasli, A. M., Awan, U., Ma, J., Ali, G., Alam, A., et al. (2014). Environment and air pollution: Health services bequeath to grotesque menace. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22(5), 3467–3476.Google Scholar
- Rafindadi, A. A., Yusof, Z., Zaman, K., Kyophilavong, P., & Akhmat, G. (2014). The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21(19), 11395–11400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- UN. (2009). Chapter 4. Development issues in Sub-Saharan Africa. http://www.east4south.eu/index.php/eu_and_development/4._development_issues_in_sub-saharan_africa. Accessed January 9, 2015.
- WHO. (2006). The African regional health report: The health of the people. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/bulletin/africanhealth/en/. Accessed January 8, 2015.
- World B. (2014). World development indicators. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar