Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 127, Issue 3, pp 1349–1361 | Cite as

Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors and Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Research

  • Po-Wen Ku
  • Kenneth R. Fox
  • Li-Jung ChenEmail author
Article

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the independent and prospective associations of aspects of self-reported leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and leisure-time sedentary behaviors (LTSB) with subjective well-being (SWB). Data from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 phases of the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly conducted by the Taiwan Ministry of Health and Welfare on a nationally representative sample of older Taiwanese were used. A fixed cohort of 1268 participants aged 70 years or older in 1999 with 8 years of follow-up was analyzed. Subjective well-being was assessed using the Life Satisfaction Index A. Frequencies per week of different types of LTSB and LTPA were self-reported. Generalized estimating equation models with multivariate adjustment for socio-demographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status were developed. Participants who had higher frequencies of LTPA and LTSB, especially engaging in walking, yard/gardening, group exercise, TV watching, social chatting and reading, recorded higher levels of well-being. This was supported by a sensitivity analysis after excluding participants with potential cognitive decline. This study indicated that both LTPA and aspects of LTSB in later life may provide beneficial effects for subsequent SWB.

Keywords

Sitting Exercise Aging Quality of life Life satisfaction 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research was partly supported by Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology (NSC 100-2628-H-018 -002 -MY2). Professor Fox’s contribution was in part supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre based at Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Oxford.

References

  1. Adams, K. B., Leibbrandt, S., & Moon, H. (2011). A critical review of the literature on social and leisure activity and wellbeing in later life. Ageing & Society, 31(04), 683–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, T., & Bull, F. (2006). Development of the World Health Organization global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ). Journal of Public Health, 14(2), 66–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashe, M. C., Miller, W. C., Eng, J. J., & Noreau, L. (2009). Older adults, chronic disease and leisure-time physical activity. Gerontology, 55(1), 64–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker, D., & Palmer, R. (2006). Examining the effects of perceptions of community and recreation participation on quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 75(3), 395–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beard, J. G., & Ragheb, M. G. (1980). Measuring leisure satisfaction. Journal of Leisure Research, 12(1), 20–33.Google Scholar
  6. Bherer, L., Erickson, K. I., & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A review of the effects of physical activity and exercise on cognitive and brain functions in older adults. Journal of Aging Research, 2013, 1–8.Google Scholar
  7. Brawley, L. R., Rejeski, W. J., & Lutes, L. (2000). A group-mediated cognitive-behavioral intervention for increasing adherence to physical activity in older adults. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 5(1), 47–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, L. J., Stevinson, C., Ku, P. W., Chang, Y. K., & Chu, D. C. (2012). Relationships of leisure-time and non-leisure-time physical activity with depressive symptoms: A population-based study of Taiwanese older adults. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(28), 1–10.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2002). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Cummins, R. A., & Lau, A. L. D. (2010). Well-being across cultures: Issues of measurement and the interpretation of data. In K. D. Keith (Ed.), Cross-cultural psychology: Contemporary themes and perspectives (pp. 365–379). Wiley: Oxford.Google Scholar
  11. Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55(1), 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Faulkner, G., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2013). Standing on top of the world: Is sedentary behaviour associated with mental health? Mental Health and Physical Activity, 6(1), 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fox, K. R., Stathi, A., McKenna, J., & Davis, M. (2007). Physical activity and mental well-being in older people participating in the Better Aging Project. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 100, 591–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gardiner, P., Clark, B., Healy, G., Eakin, E., Winkler, E., & Owen, N. (2011). Measuring older adults’ sedentary time: Reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(11), 2127–2133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hosmer, D. W., Lemeshow, S., & Sturdivant, R. X. (2013). Applied logistic regression (3rd ed.). NJ: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ip, P. K. (2009). Well-being of nations—A cross-cultural perspective. Social Indicators Research, 91(1), 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones, M., & O’Beney, C. (2004). Promoting mental health through physical activity: Examples from practice. Journal of Public Mental Health, 3(1), 39–47. doi: 10.1108/17465729200400006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kim, J. E., & Moen, P. (2002). Retirement transitions, gender, and psychological well-being. Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57, 212–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ku, P. W., Fox, K. R., Chang, C. Y., Sun, W. J., & Chen, L. J. (2014). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of categories of physical activities with dimensions of subjective well-being in Taiwanese older adults. Social Indicators Research, 117(3), 705–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ku, P. W., Fox, K. R., & Chen, L. J. (2009). Physical activity and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese older adults: A seven-year follow-up study. Preventive Medicine, 48(3), 250–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ku, P. W., Fox, K. R., Chen, L. J., & Chou, P. (2011). Physical activity, sedentary time and subjective well-being in Taiwanese older adults. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 42(3), 245–262.Google Scholar
  24. Ku, P. W., Fox, K. R., Chen, L. J., & Chou, P. (2012a). Associations of leisure, work-related and domestic physical activity with cognitive impairment in older adults. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 43(3), 103–116.Google Scholar
  25. Ku, P. W., Fox, K. R., Chen, L. J., & Chou, P. (2012b). Physical activity and depressive aymptoms in older adults: 11-year follow-up. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(4), 355–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ku, P. W., Fox, K. R., & McKenna, J. (2008). Assessing subjective well-being in Chinese older adults: The Chinese aging well profile. Social Indicators Research, 87, 445–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ku, P. W., McKenna, J., & Fox, K. R. (2007). Dimensions of subjective well-being and effects of physical activity in Chinese older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 15, 382–397.Google Scholar
  28. Ku, P. W., Stevinson, C., & Chen, L. J. (2012c). Prospective associations between leisure-time physical activity and cognitive performance among older adults across an eleven-year period. Journal of Epidemiology, 22(3), 230–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lautenschlager, N. T., Cox, K. L., Flicker, L., Foster, J. K., van Bockxmeer, F. M., Xiao, J., et al. (2008). Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for alzheimer disease: A randomized trial. Journal of American Medical Association, 300(9), 1027–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lewis, V. G., & Borders, L. D. (1995). Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(1), 94–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liang, J. (1984). Dimensions of the Life Satisfaction Index A: A structural formulation. Journal of Gerontology, 39(5), 613–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liang, K. Y., & Zeger, S. L. (1986). Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika, 73(1), 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lu, L. (2011). Leisure experiences and depressive symptoms among Chinese older people: A national survey in Taiwan. Educational Gerontology, 37(9), 753–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Matthews, C. E., Jurj, A. L., Shu, X.-O., Li, H.-L., Yang, G., Li, Q., et al. (2007). Influence of exercise, walking, cycling, and overall nonexercise physical activity on mortality in Chinese women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 165(12), 1343–1350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Neugarten, B. L., Havighurst, R. J., & Tobin, S. S. (1961). The measurement of life satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 134–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Newman, D., Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2014). Leisure and subjective well-being: A model of psychological mechanisms as mediating factors. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(3), 555–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Östlund, B. (2010). Watching television in later life: A deeper understanding of TV viewing in the homes of old people and in geriatric care contexts. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 24(2), 233–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Peel, N. M., McClure, R. J., & Bartlett, H. P. (2005). Behavioral determinants of healthy aging. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(3), 298–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Prince, S., Adamo, K., Hamel, M., Hardt, J., Gorber, S., & Tremblay, M. (2008). A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5(1), 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rezende, L. F., Rey-López, J. P., Matsudo, V. K., & do Luiz, O. (2014). Sedentary behavior and health outcomes among older adults: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rodríguez, A., Látková, P., & Sun, Y.-Y. (2008). The relationship between leisure and life satisfaction: Application of activity and need theory. Social Indicators Research, 86(1), 163–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rowe, J. W., & Kahn, R. L. (1997). Successful aging. The Gerontologist, 37(4), 433–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rubin, D. B., Stern, H. S., & Vehovar, V. (1995). Handling ‘don’t know’ survey responses: The case of the Slovenian. Journal of American Statistical Association, 90(431), 822–828.Google Scholar
  44. Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7(2), 147–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sedentary Behaviour Research Network. (2012). Letter to the editor: Standardized use of the terms “sedentary” and “sedentary behaviours”. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 37(3), 540–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Spinney, J. E., & Millward, H. (2014). Active living among older Canadians: A time-use perspective over 3 decades. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 22, 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion. (2010). Survey of health and living status of the middle aged and elderly in Taiwan survey report, 1989–2007. Taichung: Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health.Google Scholar
  48. Taiwan Deportment of Health. (2002). The definition of overweight and obesity for children and adolescents. Taiwan Deportment of Health.Google Scholar
  49. Teng, P.-R., Yeh, C.-J., Lee, M.-C., Lin, H.-S., & Lai, T.-J. (2013). Change in depressive status and mortality in elderly persons: Results of a national longitudinal study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 56(1), 244–249.Google Scholar
  50. Teychenne, M., Ball, K., & Salmo, J. (2010). Sedentary behavior and depression among adults: A review. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 17(4), 246–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Toepoel, V. (2013). Ageing, leisure, and social connectedness: How could leisure help reduce social isolation of older people? Social Indicators Research, 113(1), 355–372. doi: 10.1007/s11205-012-0097-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. UK Department of Health. (2011). Start active, stay active: A report on physical activity from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  53. US Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). 2008 Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Washington: US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  54. van der Heijden, G. J., Donders, A. R., Stijnen, T., & Moons, K. G. (2006). Imputation of missing values is superior to complete case analysis and the missing-indicator method in multivariable diagnostic research: A clinical example. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 59(10), 1102–1109.Google Scholar
  55. Verghese, J., Cuiling, W., Katz, M. J., Sanders, A., & Lipton, R. B. (2009). Leisure activities and risk of vascular cognitive impairment in older adults. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 22(2), 110–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Verghese, J., LeValley, A., Derby, C., Kuslansky, G., Katz, M., Hall, C., et al. (2006). Leisure activities and the risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment in the elderly. Neurology, 66(6), 821–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang, H.-X., Jin, Y., Hendrie, H. C., Liang, C., Yang, L., Cheng, Y., et al. (2013). Late life leisure activities and risk of cognitive decline. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(2), 205–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang, J. Y. J., Zhou, D. H. D., Li, J., Zhang, M., Deng, J., Tang, M., et al. (2006). Leisure activity and risk of cognitive impairment: The Chongqing aging study. Neurology, 66(6), 911–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Warburton, D. E. R., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Rhodes, R. E., & Shephard, R. J. (2007). Evidence-informed physical activity guidelines for Canadian adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 32(S2E), S16–S68. doi: 10.1139/H07-123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wijndaele, K., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Godino, J. G., Lynch, B. M., Griffin, S. J., Westgate, K., et al. (2014). Reliability and validity of a domain-specific last-7-day sedentary time questionnaire. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 46(6), 1248–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Windle, G. (2014). Exercise, physical activity and mental well-being in later life. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 24(04), 319–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Windle, G., Hughes, D., Linck, P., Russell, I., & Woods, B. (2010). Is exercise effective in promoting mental well-being in older age? A systematic review. Aging & Mental Health, 14(6), 652–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Withall, J., Stathi, A., Davis, M., Coulson, J., Thompson, J. L., & Fox, K. R. (2014). Objective indicators of physical activity and sedentary time and associations with subjective well-being in adults aged 70 and over. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(1), 643–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. World Health Organization. (2002). Active aging: A policy framework. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  65. Zimmer, Z., Ofstedal, M. B., & Chang, M. C. (2001). Impact of cognitive status and decline on service and support utilization among older adults in Taiwan. Research on Aging, 23(3), 267–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Sports and HealthNational Changhua University of EducationChanghua CityTaiwan
  2. 2.Centre for Exercise, Nutrition and Health SciencesUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  3. 3.Department of Exercise Health ScienceNational Taiwan University of SportTaichungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations