Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 127, Issue 1, pp 1–38 | Cite as

The Colombian Multidimensional Poverty Index: Measuring Poverty in a Public Policy Context

  • Roberto Angulo
  • Yadira Díaz
  • Renata Pardo
Article

Abstract

Previous multidimensional indices for the Colombian context, such as the Unmet Basic Needs Index or the Living Conditions Index, have lost their public policy relevance and arguably have become poor instruments for poverty measurement. This paper presents the Colombian Multidimensional Poverty Index (CMPI), a synthetic indicator that overcomes the methodological problems from previous multidimensional indices and has a broad public policy scope of use. The CMPI is based on the methodology of Alkire and Foster (J Public Econ 95:476–478, 2011a) and is composed of five dimensions (education of household members, childhood and youth conditions, health, employment and access to household utilities and living conditions). Additionally, it uses a nested weighting structure, where each dimension is equally weighted, as is each indicator within each dimension. This paper proposes the CMPI for tracking multiple deprivations across the national territory, to monitor public policies by sector and to design poverty reduction goals, among other public policy uses. Analysis of the results demonstrates that multidimensional poverty in Colombia decreased between 1997 and 2010 in both urban and rural areas, but imbalances remain.

Keywords

Multidimensional poverty Colombia Alkire and Foster measures Deprivation Urban and rural differences 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was undertaken while the authors were working for the National Planning Department of Colombia (NPD); the project is an initiative of the National Planning Department, and it was funded in full by the NPD. We would like to thank Esteban Piedrahíta and Juan Mauricio Ramírez for taking the initiative to design a CMPI. We also thank James Foster (George Washington University) and Sabina Alkire, José Manuel Roche and Diego Zavaleta, from the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) for their encouragement and critical comments during the design and development of the indicator. We thank Jorge Ivan González, Jairo Nuñez, Hugo López, Raquel Bernal, Ximena Peña and Alfredo Sarmiento for their clever and thoughtful comments, and we thank Yolanda Riveros for her careful work as a research assistant. Also, thanks to the Social Development and Urban Development Divisions at the National Planning Department for the advice on choosing indicators consistent with the priorities of public policy. Finally, we would like to thank Hernando José Gómez and José Fernando Arias for promoting the use of the CMPI in the design and orientation of public policy in Colombia. This version of the paper has benefited from the insights and suggestions of the anonymous referee and Maria Iacovou (University of Cambridge).

Conflict of interest

We (Roberto Angulo, Yadira Díaz and Renata Pardo) declare that we do not have any conflict of interest for the publication of this original research article.

Compliance with ethical standards

We, Roberto Angulo, Yadira Díaz and Renata Pardo, authors of the article ‘The Colombian multidimensional poverty index: measuring poverty in a public policy context”, certify that we comply in full the ethical responsibilities of authors of the journal Social Indicators Research outlined in the journal’s website (http://www.springer.com/social+sciences/journal/11205) accessed on the 23rd of February of 2015. For this purpose, we follow acknowledging the funding upon this work was developed, and disclosing no potential conflicts of interest for the publication of this manuscript as an original research article.

References

  1. Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2011a). Counting and multidimensional poverty measurement. Journal of Public Economics, 95, 476–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alkire, S., & Foster, J. (2011b). Understandings and misunderstandings of multidimensional poverty measurement. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 9(2), 289–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alkire, S., & Santos, M. (2010). Acute multidimensional poverty: A new index for developing countries. UNPD, Human Development Research Paper.Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson, A. B. (2003). Multidimensional deprivation: Contrasting social welfare and counting approaches. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 1(1), 51–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Battiston, D. et al. (2009). Income and beyond: Multidimensional poverty in six Latin American countries. OPHI Working Paper, 17.Google Scholar
  6. Bourguignon, F., & Chakravarty, S. R. (2003). The measurement of multidimensional poverty. The Journal of Economic Inequality, 1(1), 25–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Castano, E., Deutsch, R., & Velez, C. (1999). Una interpretación económica del sistema de focalización de programas sociales: El caso sisben en colombia. Revista Coyuntura Social, Fedesarrollo, 21.Google Scholar
  8. CMEPSP. (2009). Report of commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress. Technical report, National Planing Department, Colombia.Google Scholar
  9. Conpes. (2012). Metodologías oficiales y arreglos institucionales para la medición de la pobreza en colombia. Technical report, Consejo Nacional de Política Económica y Social, República de Colombia, Departamento Nacional de Planeación. Documento Conpes Social No 150.Google Scholar
  10. Cortés, D., Gamboa, L., & González, J. (1999a). Icv: Hacia una medida de estándar de vida. Revista Coyuntura Social, Fedesarrollo, 21.Google Scholar
  11. Cortés, D., Gamboa, L., & González, J. (1999b). Un marco teórico para un indicador tipo sisben. Reporte técnico, Fondo Financiero de Proyectos de Desarrollo (FONADE) y Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia.Google Scholar
  12. Cortés, D., Gamboa, L., & González, J. (2000). Algunas consideraciones analíticas sobre el estándar de vida. Revista de Economía de la Universidad del Rosario, III.Google Scholar
  13. Decancq, K., & Lugo, M. A. (2013). Weights in multidimensional indices of wellbeing: An overview. Econometric Reviews, 32(1), 7–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DNP, PNUD, ICBF, and MS (2002). Familias Colombianas: Estrategias Frente al Riesgo. Departamento Nacional de Planeación (DNP), Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF), Misión Social (MS). Alfa Omega, Bogota.Google Scholar
  15. Florez, C., Sanchez, L., Espinosa, F., & Angulo, R. (2011). El indice sisben iii.Google Scholar
  16. Foster, J., Greer, J., & Thorbecke, E. (1984). A class of decomposable poverty measures. Econometrica, 52, 761–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. González, J., & Sarmiento, A. (1998). Algunos aspectos conceptuales del índice de condiciones de vida. Coyuntura Social, 19, 67–88.Google Scholar
  18. López Calva, L. F., & Ortiz Juárez, E. (2009). Medición multidimensional de la pobreza en méxico: Significancia estadística en la inclusión de dimensiones no monetarias. Reporte técnico, Estudios Económicos.Google Scholar
  19. Muñoz, M. (1995). Los indicadores de necesidades básicas insatisfechas (nbi). Boletín de Estadística DANE, 507.Google Scholar
  20. Pattanaik, P., & Xu, Y. (1990). On ranking opportunity sets in terms of freedoms of choice. Recherches Economiques de Louvain, 507.Google Scholar
  21. PNUD, UNICEF, & DANE. (1987). Magnitud de la pobreza en colombia, primer informe del proyecto de indicadores de pobreza. Boletín de Estadística DANE 411, Departamento Nacional de Planeación y Ministerio de Agricultura.Google Scholar
  22. Santos, M. E., Lugo, M. A., López-Calva, L. F., Cruces, G., & Battistón, D. (2010). Refining the basic needs approach: A multidimensional analysis of poverty in Latin America. In J. Bishop (Ed.), Studies in applied welfare analysis: Papers from the third ECINEQ meeting. Research on economic inequality Vol. 18 (pp. 1–29).Google Scholar
  23. Sen, A. K. (1976). Poverty: An ordinal approach to measurement. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 44(2), 219–231.Google Scholar
  24. Sen, A. K. (1979). Issues in the measurement of poverty. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 81(2), 285–307.Google Scholar
  25. Tsui, K.-Y. (2002). Multidimensional poverty indices. Social Choice and Welfare, 19(1), 69–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vélez, C., Azevedo, J., & Posso, C. (2010). Oportunidades para los Niños Colombianos: Cuánto Avanzamos en esta Década. Banco Mundial, Banco de la República, DNP, Colombia.Google Scholar
  27. WHO & UNICEF. (2010). Progress on sanitation and drinking-water: 2010 Update. World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BogotáColombia
  2. 2.Institute of Social and Economic Research (ISER)University of EssexColchesterUK
  3. 3.Universidad de los AndesBogotáColombia

Personalised recommendations