Social Indicators Research

, Volume 127, Issue 1, pp 435–445

Linking Social Support to Psychological Distress in the Unemployed: The Moderating Role of Core Self-Evaluations

  • Lourdes Rey
  • Natalio Extremera
  • María Angeles Peláez-Fernández
Article

Abstract

In this study, an integrative analysis involving social support and core self-evaluations (CSE) as concurrent predictors of psychological distress among unemployed adults was conducted. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between perceptions of social support and CSE with psychological distress among unemployed adults, as well as whether levels of CSE moderated the relations between social support and psychological distress. Results indicated that, along with the expected direct and additional influence, a significant social support × CSE interaction was found in explaining several dimensions of psychological distress beyond the independent effect of socio-demographic variables, social support and CSE independently. Specifically, we found significant interaction for social support × CSE in explaining stress and anxiety symptoms. Our data provide empirical support for theoretical and conceptual work connecting social support, CSE and psychological distress associated with unemployment suggesting that alone, but also in combination, these contextual and personal resources may be particularly relevant for leading to reduced psychological distress during unemployment. Finally, theoretical implications of the joint study of these constructs and their relation with psychological distress in unemployed people are discussed.

Keywords

Social support Core self-evaluations Psychological distress Unemployment 

References

  1. Aiken, L., & West, S. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  2. Audhoe, S. S., Hoving, J. L., Sluiter, J. K., & Frings-Dresen, M. H. (2010). Vocational interventions for unemployed: Effects on work participation and mental distress. A systematic review. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 20, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Axelsson, L., & Ejlertsson, G. (2002). Self-reported health, self-esteem and social support among young unemployed people: A population based study. International Journal of Social Welfare, 11, 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bados, A., Solanas, A., & Andrés, R. (2005). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of depression, anxiety and depression and stress scales (DASS). Psicothema, 17, 679–683.Google Scholar
  5. Beland, F., Birch, S., & Stoddart, G. (2002). Unemployment and health: Contextual-level influences on the production of health in populations. Social Science and Medicine, 55, 2033–2052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bjarnason, T., & Sigurdardottir, T. J. (2003). Psychological distress during unemployment and beyond: Social support and material deprivation among youth in six northern European countries. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 973–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark, L. A., Watson, D., & Mineka, S. (1994). Temperament, personality, and the mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Classen, T. J., & Dunn, R. A. (2012). The effect of job loss and unemployment duration on suicide risk in the United States: A new look using mass-layoffs and unemployment duration. Health Economics, 21, 338–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  10. Creed, P., Lehmann, K., & Hood, M. (2009). The relationship between core self-evaluations, employment commitment and well-being in the unemployed. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 310–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Creed, P. A., Machin, M. A., & Hicks, R. E. (1999). Improving mental health status and coping abilities for long-term unemployed youth using cognitive-behaviour therapy based training interventions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 963–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dambrun, M., & Dubuy, A. L. (2014). A positive psychology intervention among long-term unemployed people and its effects on psychological distress and well-being. Journal of Employement Counseling, 51, 75–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dooley, D., Fielding, J., & Levi, L. (1996). Health and unemployment. Annual Review of Public Health, 17, 449–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Extremera, N., & Rey, L. (2014). Health-related quality of life and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the unemployed: A cross-sectional survey. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12, 172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Judge, T. A. (2009). Core self-evaluations and work success. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 58–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. A., & Thoresen, C. J. (2003). The core self-evaluations scale (CSES): Development of a measure. Personnel Psychology, 56, 303–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., & Durham, C. C. (1997). The dispositional causes of job satisfaction: A core evaluations approach. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19, 151–188.Google Scholar
  18. Judge, T. A., Van Vianen, A. E. M., & De Pater, I. E. (2004). Emotional stability, core self-evaluations, and job outcomes: A review of the evidence and an agenda for future research. Human Performance, 17, 325–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., Judge, T. A., & Scott, B. A. (2009). The role of core self-evaluations in the coping process: Testing an integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 177–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Landeta, O., & Calvete, E. (2002). Adaptación y Validación de la Escala Multidimensional de Apoyo Social Percibido. Revista de Ansiedad y Estrés, 8, 173–182.Google Scholar
  21. Latack, J. C., Kinicki, A. J., & Prussia, G. E. (1995). An integrative process model of coping with job loss. Academy of Managament Review, 20, 311–342.Google Scholar
  22. Liu, S., Huang, J. L., & Wang, M. (2014). Effectiveness of job search interventions: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1009–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lovibond, P., & Lovibond, S. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the Beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McClelland, G. H., & Judd, C. M. (1993). Statistical difficulties of detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 376–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mckee-Ryan, F., & Kinicki, A. J. (2002). Coping with job loss: A life-facet model. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 17, 1–29.Google Scholar
  26. McKee-Ryan, F., Kinicki, A. J., Song, Z., & Wanberg, C. R. (2005). Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment: A meta-analytic study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 53–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Meyer, G. J., Finn, S. E., Eyde, L. D., Kay, G. G., Moreland, L. K., & Dies, R. R. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment: A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 56, 128–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Paul, K. I., & Moser, K. (2009). Unemployment impairs mental health: Meta-analyses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74, 264–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rey, L., Extremera, N., & Durán, M. A. (2012). Core self-evaluations, meta-mood experience, and happiness: Tests of direct and moderating effects. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schwarzer, R., Jerusalem, M., & Hahn, A. (1994). Unemployment, social support and health complaints: A longitudinal study of stress in East German refugees. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 4, 31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Slebarska, K., Moser, K., & Gunnesch-Luca, G. (2009). Unemployment, social support, individual resources, and job search behaviour. Journal of Employment Counseling, 46, 159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Song, G., Kong, F., & Jin, W. (2013). Mediating effects of core self-evaluations on the relationship between social support and life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 114, 1161–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stankunas, M., Kalediene, R., Starkuviene, S., & Kapustinskiene, V. (2006). Duration of unemployment and depression: A cross-sectional survey in Lithuania. BMC Public Health, 6, 174–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ullah, P., Banks, M. H., & Warr, P. P. (1985). Social support, social presures and psychological distress during unemployment. Psychological Medicine, 15, 283–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vinokur, A. D., Price, R. H., & Caplan, R. D. (1996). Hard times and hurtful partners: How financial strain affects depression and relationship satisfaction of unemployed persons and their spouses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 166–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vinokur, A. D., & van Ryn, M. (1993). Social support and undermining in close relationships: Their independent effects on the mental health of unemployed persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 350–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wanberg, C. R. (2012). The individual experience of unemployment. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 369–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wanberg, C. R., Glomb, T. M., Song, Z., & Sorenson, S. (2005). Job-search persistence during unemployment: A 10-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 411–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wills, T. A. (1991). Social support and interpersonal relationships. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Prosocial behaviour (pp. 265–289). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Yip, P. S., & Caine, E. D. (2011). Employment status and suicide: The complex relationships between changing unemployment rates and death rates. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65, 733–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 30–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lourdes Rey
    • 1
  • Natalio Extremera
    • 1
  • María Angeles Peláez-Fernández
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of MálagaMálagaSpain

Personalised recommendations