Social Indicators Research

, Volume 125, Issue 3, pp 1053–1063 | Cite as

Examining Mediator Role of the Social Safeness on the Relationship Between Vengeance and Life Satisfaction

  • Umran AkınEmail author
  • Ahmet Akın


The aim of the present study is to examine the mediating role of social safeness on the relationship between vengeance and life satisfaction. Participants were 305 university students who completed a questionnaire package which includes the Vengeance Scale, the Social Safeness and Pleasure Scale, and the Life Satisfaction Scale. According to the results, social safeness and life satisfaction were predicted negatively by vengeance. On the other hand, life satisfaction was predicted positively by social safeness. In addition, social safeness mediated the relationship between vengeance and life satisfaction. Together, the findings illuminate the social processes underlying the association of vengeance with life satisfaction.


Vengeance Social safeness Life satisfaction Hierarchical regression analysis 


  1. Akın, A., Uysal, R., & Çitemel, N. (2013). The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Social Safeness and Pleasure Scale. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 9(1), 34–40.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, T. C., Eng, W., Frisch, M. B., & Snyder, C. R. (2007). Hope and optimism as related to life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology: Dedicated to furthering research and promoting good practice, 2(3), 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber, L., Maltby, J., & Macaskill, A. (2005). Angry memories and thoughts of revenge: The relationship between forgiveness and anger rumination. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 253–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). Moderator–mediator variables distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bies, R. J., & Tripp, T. M. (2005). The study of revenge in the workplace: Conceptual, ideological, and empirical issues. In S. Fox & P. E. Spector (Eds.), Counterproductive work behaviour: Investigations of actors and targets (pp. 65–81). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradford, J., & Dimock, J. (1986). A comparative study of adolescents and adults who willfully set fires. Psychiatric Review of the University of Ottawa, 11, 228–234.Google Scholar
  7. Brown, R. P. (2003). Measuring individual differences in the tendency to forgive: Construct validity and links with depression. Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 759–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, R. P. (2004). Vengeance is mine: Narcissism, vengeance and the tendency to forgive. Journal of Research in Personality, 38(6), 576–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bulut, N. (2007). Relations between school psychological counselors’ life satisfaction, strategies of coping with stress and negative automatic thoughts. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal, 3(27), 1–13.Google Scholar
  10. Busseri, M. A., Sadava, S. W., & Decourville, N. (2007). A hybrid model for research on subjective wellbeing: Examining common-and component-specific sources of variance in life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Social Indicators Research, 83, 413–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cardozo, B. L., Kaiser, R., Gotway, C. A., & Agani, F. (2003). Mental health, social functioning, and feelings of hatred and revenge of Kosovar Albanians one year after the war in Kosovo. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 351–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Çelik, M., & Tümkaya, S. (2012). The relationship between job variables of life satisfaction and marital satisfaction of lecturers. KEFAD, 13(1), 223–238.Google Scholar
  13. Cota-Mckinley, A. L., Woody, W. D., & Bell, P. A. (2001). Vengeance: Effects of gender, age, and religious background. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 343–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (1988). Homicide. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  15. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2000). A model of burnout and life satisfaction among nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32, 454–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diener, E., Napa-Scollon, C. K., Oishi, S., Dzoketo, V., & Suh, E. M. (2000). Positivity and the construction of life satisfaction judgments: Global happiness is not the sum of its part. Journal of Happiness, 1, 159–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Douglass, S. C., & Martinko, M. J. (2001). Exploring the role of individual differences in the prediction of workplace aggression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 547–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Durak, M., Senol-Durak, E., & Gencoz, T. (2010). Psychometric properties of the satisfaction with life scale among Turkish university students, correctional officers, and elderly adults. Social Indicators Research, 99(3), 413–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dwight, A., Hennessy, D. A., & Wiesenthal, D. L. (2004). Age and vengeance as predictors of mild driver aggression. Violence and Victims, 19(4), 469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Edwards, L. M., & Lopez, S. J. (2006). Perceived family support, acculturation, and life satisfaction in Mexican American youth: A mixed-methods exploration. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(3), 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Extremera, N., Duran, A., & Rey, L. (2009). The moderating effect of trait meta-mood on perceived stress on life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 116–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fincham, F. D. (2000). The kiss of the porcupines: From attributing responsibility to forgiving. Personal Relationships, 7, 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Frisch, M. B. (2000). Improving mental and physical health care through quality of life therapy and assessment. In E. Diener & D. R. Rahtz (Eds.), Advances in quality of life: Theory and research (pp. 207–241). London: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gibson, P. M., & Goranson, R. (1996). Vengeful attitudes and the use of force in criminal offences. LaMarsh Research Programme Report Series, 56, LaMarsh Research Programme on Violence and Conflict Resolution. Toronto, Canada: York University.Google Scholar
  26. Gilbert, P. (2005). Compassion: Conceptualizations research and use in psychotherapy. London: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Gilbert, P. (2010). Compassion focused therapy. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Gilbert, P., McEwan, K., Mitra, R., Richter, A., Franks, L., Mills, A., et al. (2009). An exploration of different types of positive affect in students and patients with bipolar disorder. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 6(4), 135–143.Google Scholar
  29. Gilman, R., & Huebner, E. S. (2003). A review of life satisfaction research with children and adolescents. School Psychology Quarterly, 18, 192–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goodwin, R., Cook, O., & Yung, Y. (2001). Loneliness and life satisfaction among three cultural groups. Personal Relationships, 8, 225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Griffiths, M. D. (2000). Does internet and computer “addiction” exist? Some case study evidence. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 3, 211–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kelly, A. C., Zuroff, D. C., Leybman, M. J., & Gilpert, P. (2012). Social safeness, received social support, and maladjustment: Testing a tripartite model of affect regulation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(6), 815–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liotti, G. (2000). Disorganized attachment, models of borderline states, and evolutionary psychotherapy. In P. Gilbert & K. Bailey (Eds.), Genes on the couch: Essays in evolutionary psychotherapy. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  34. Mccullough, M. E., Bellah, C. G., Kilpatrick, S. D., & Johnson, J. L. (2001). Vengefulness: relationships with forgiveness, rumination, well-being, and the Big Five. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 601–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mccullough, M. E., Rachal, K. C., Sandage, S. J., Worthington, E. L., Brown, S. W., & Hight, T. L. (1998). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. II: Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1586–1603.  Google Scholar
  36. Palmer, B., Walls, M., Burgess, Z., & Stough, C. (2001). Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 22, 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The satisfaction with Life Scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rostami, Z., & Abedi, M. R. (2012). Dose academic burnout predicts life satisfaction or life satisfaction is predictor of academic burnout? Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(12), 668–674.Google Scholar
  39. Rothstein, B., & Uslaner, E. M. (2005). All for all: Equality, corruption, and social trust. World Politics, 58, 41–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sapmaz, F., & Doğan, T. (2012). Optimism as a predictor of happiness and life satisfaction. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 8(3), 63–69.Google Scholar
  41. Satıcı, S. A., Can, G., & Akın, A. (2012). The Vengeance Scale: The validity and reliability of the Turkish version. In: Paper presented at the international counseling and education conference (ICEC-2012), May 3–5, Istanbul, Turkey.Google Scholar
  42. Siahpush, M., Spittal, M., & Singh, G. K. (2008). Happiness and life satisfaction prospectively predict self-rated health, physical health, and the presence of limiting, long-term health conditions. American Journal of Health Promotion, 23, 18–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 290–312). Washington DC: American Sociological Association.Google Scholar
  44. Stillwell, A. M., Baumeister, R. F., & Del Priore, R. E. (2008). We’re all victims here: Toward a psychology of revenge. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30, 253–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stuckless, N., & Goranson, R. (1992). The Vengeance Scale: Development of a measure of attitudes toward revenge. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 25–42.Google Scholar
  46. Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004). Does life satisfaction moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychopathological behavior during adolescence? School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tanaka, T. (2001). The identity formation of the victim of “shunning”. School Psychology International, 22, 463–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Toussaint, L. L., Williams, D. R., Musick, M. A., & Everson, S. A. (2001). Forgiveness and health: Age differences in a US probability sample. Journal of Adult Development, 8, 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tripp, T. M., Bies, R. J., & Aquino, K. (2002). Poetic justice or petty jealousy? The aesthetics of revenge. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 89, 966–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Westerlaken, K., Jordan, P. J., & Ramsay, S. G. (2011). Does sense of entitlement predict desire for vengeance? In Paper presented at the 25th Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference, 7–9 December, Wellington, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  51. Wiesenthal, D. L. (1990). Psychological aspects of vandalism. In R. Takens (Ed.), European perspectives in social psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 279–297). Essex: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Wong, S. S., & Lim, T. (2009). Hope versus optimism in Singaporean adolescents: Contributions to depression and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 648–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yeager, D. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., Tirri, K., Nokelainen, P., & Dweck, C. S. (2011). Adolescents’ implicit theories predict desire for vengeance after peer conflicts: Correlational and experimental evidence. Developmental Psychology, 47(4), 1090–1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yiğit, R. (2012). Examination of relationship between self-esteem, life satisfaction of riot policemen and their approach to dealing with stress. KEFAD, 13(1), 61–75.Google Scholar
  55. Ysseldyk, R., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2007). Rumination: Bridging a gap between forgivingness, vengefulness, and psychological health. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1573–1584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychological Counselling and Guidance, Faculty of EducationSakarya UniversityHendekTurkey

Personalised recommendations