Social Indicators Research

, Volume 125, Issue 3, pp 977–990 | Cite as

The Determinants of Life Satisfaction Among Adolescents: The Role of Metacognitive Awareness and Self-Efficacy

  • Özkan CikrikciEmail author
  • Hatice Odaci


This study investigated the associations among the life satisfaction, metacognitive awareness and perceived self-efficacy. It also investigated whether life satisfaction, metacognitive awareness and perceived self-efficacy vary according to gender. The study was performed with 492 students attending high schools. The Life Satisfaction Scale, Cognitive Awareness Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale and an Individual Data Form were used for data collection. Pearson correlation coefficient results revealed that life satisfaction was significantly positively correlated with metacognitive awareness (r = .36, p < .001) and self-efficacy (r = .28, p < .001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that metacognitive awareness and self-efficacy accounted for 15 % of life satisfaction (F(2,489) = 45.25, p < .001). Metacognitive awareness (ß = .29, p < .001) and self-efficacy (ß = .16, p < .001) make a significant original contribution to the model. In addition, the results show that adolescents do not vary according to life satisfaction (F = .10, p = .74, η2= .00), metacognitive awareness (F = .01, p = .91, η2 = .00) or self-efficacy (F = 2.21, p = .13, η2 = .00). The study results show that metacognitive awareness and self-efficacy are significant predictors of life satisfaction in adolescents.


Life satisfaction Metacognitive awareness Self-efficacy Adolescents 


  1. Abolghasemi, A., & Varaniyab, S. T. (2010). Resilience and perceived stress: Predictors of life satisfaction in the students of succcess and failure. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 748–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akın, A., Abaci, R., & Çetin, B. (2007). The validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the metacognitive awareness inventory. Educational Sciences Theory and Practice, 7(2), 671–678.Google Scholar
  3. Aktürk, A. O., & Şahin, İ. (2010). Analysis of community college students’ educational internet use and metacognitive learning strategies. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 5581–5585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aydın, F., & Coşkun, M. (2011). Geography teacher candidates’ metacognitive awareness levels: A case study from Turkey. Archives of Applied Science Research, 3(2), 551–557.Google Scholar
  5. Aydıner, B. B. (2011). Üniversite öğrencilerinin yaşam amaçlarının alt boyutlarının genel öz-yeterlik, yaşam doyumu ve çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmesi [The relationship between sub-dimensions of the life goals with general self efficacy, life satisfaction and some variables] (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Sakarya: Sakarya University.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. New Jersey: Prentice- Hall.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self- efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67(3), 1206–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2004). Life satisfaction among European American, African American, Chinese American, Mexican American and Dominican American adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(5), 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Butler, D. L., & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65(3), 245–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carr, M., & Alexander, J. (1996). Where gifted children do and do not excel on metacognitive tasks. Rooper Review, 18(3), 212–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carrell, P. L., Gajdusek, L., & Wise, T. (1998). Metacognition and EFL/ESL reading. Instructional Science, 26(1–2), 97–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Charrow, C. B. (2006). Self-efficacy as a predictor of life satisfaction in older adults (Unpublished Dissertation). New York: Adelphi University.Google Scholar
  15. Cotton, G. (2010). Metacognition in a gifted classroom: Planning, note-taking, and checking for accuracy (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). Vancouver: The University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  16. Coutinho, S. A., & Neuman, G. (2008). A model of metacognition, achievement goal orientation, learning style and self-efficacy. Learning Environments Research, 11(2), 131–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55(1), 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diener, E., & Diener, C. (1996). Most people are happy. Psychological Science, 7(3), 181–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diener, E., & Diener, R. B. (2002). Will money increase subjective well-being? Social Indicator Research, 57(2), 19–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  23. Garner, R., & Alexander, P. A. (1989). Metacognition: Answered and unanswered questions. Educational Psychologist, 24(2), 143–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gilman, R., & Huebner, S. (2003). A review of life satisfaction research with children and adolescents. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(2), 192–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gözüm, S., & Aksayan, S. (1999). Öz-etkililik Yeterlik Ölçeği’ninTürkçe formunun güvenirlik ve geçerliliği [The reliability and validity of Turkish form of the Self-Efficacy Scale] (Article in Turkish). Journal of Anatolia Nursing and Health Sciences, 2(1), 21–34.Google Scholar
  26. Hannah, C. I., & Shore, B. M. (2008). Twice-exceptional students’ use of metacognitive skills on a comprehension monitoring task. Gifted Child Quarterly, 52(1), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hart, J. T. (1965). Memory and the feeling-of-knowing experience. Journal of Educational Psychology, 56(4), 208–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huebner, E. S. (1991). Correlates of life satisfaction in children. School Psychology Quarterly, 6(2), 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jacobs, J. E., & Paris, S. G. (1987). Children’s metacognition about reading: Issues in definition, measurement, and instruction. Educational Psychologist, 22(3–4), 255–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Junge, M. E., & Dretzke, B. J. (1995). Mathematical self-efficacy gender differences in gifted/talented adolescents. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39(1), 22–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kleitman, S., & Gibson, J. (2011). Metacognitive beliefs, self-confidence and primary learning environment of sixth grade students. Learning and Individual Differences, 21(6), 728–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koriat, A. (2004). Metacognition research: An interim report. In Timothy J. Perfect & Bennett L. Schwartz (Eds.), Applied metacognition (pp. 261–286). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Larkin, K. C. (1984). Relation of self-efficacy expectations to academic achievement and persistence. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(3), 356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Leung, J.-P., & Leung, K. (1992). Life satisfaction, self-concept, and relationship with parents in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21(6), 653–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liliana, C., & Lavinia, H. (2011). Gender differences in metacognitive skills: A study of the 8th grade pupils in Romania. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 396–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lobban, F., Haddock, G., Kinderman, P., & Wells, A. (2002). The role of metacognitive beliefs in auditory hallucinations. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(8), 1351–1363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McMillan, J. H., & Schumacher, S. (2006). Research in education: Evidence-based inquiry (6th ed.). New York: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  38. Memnun, D. S., & Akkaya, R. (2009). The levels of metacognitive awareness of primary teacher trainees. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1, 1919–1923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Morrissey, A.-M. (2011). Maternal scaffolding of analogy and metacognition in the early pretence of gifted children. Exceptional Children, 77(3), 351–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pajares, F. (1996a). Self-efficacy belief and mathematical problem-solving of gifted students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 325–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pajares, F. (1996b). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pavot, W. I., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5(2), 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rahman, F., Jumani, N. B., Chaudry, M. A., Chisti, S. H., & Abbasi, F. (2010). Impact of metacognitive awareness on performance of students in chemistry. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 3(10), 39–44.Google Scholar
  44. Ross, M. E., Green, S. B., Salisbury-Glennon, J. D., & Tollefson, M. (2006). College students’ study strategies as a function of testing: An investigation into metacognitive self-regulation. Innovative Higher Education, 30(5), 361–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schack, G. D. (1989). Self-efficacy as a mediator in the creative productivity of gifted children. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 12(3), 231–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schraw, G. (1998). Promoting general metacognitive awareness. Instructional Science, 26(1–2), 113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schraw, G. (2009). A conceptual analysis of five measures of metacognitive monitoring. Metacognition Learning, 4(1), 33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schraw, G., Crippen, K. J., & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36(1–2), 111–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schraw, G., & Graham, T. (1997). Helping gifted students develop metacognitive awareness. Roeper Review, 20(1), 4–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schraw, G., & Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 351–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schraw, G., & Sperling-Dennison, R. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19(4), 460–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schunk, D. H. (1984). Self-efficacy perspective on achievement behavior. Educational Psychologist, 19(1), 48–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sczesny, S., & Kühnen, U. (2004). Meta-cognition about biological sex and gender-stereotypic physical appearance: Consequences for the assessment of leadership competence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(1), 13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The Self-Efficacy Scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51(2), 663–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shieh, G. (2013). Confidence intervals and sample size calculations for the weighted eta-squared effect sizes in one-way heteroscedastic ANOVA. Behavior Research Methods, 45(1), 25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Spence, D. J., Yore, L. D., & Williams, R. L. (1999). The effects of explicit science reading instruction on selected grade 7 students’ metacognition and comprehension of specific science text. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 11(2), 15–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2006). Is extremely high life satisfaction during adolescence advantageous? Social Indicators Research, 78(2), 179–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Suldo, S. M., Riley, K. N., & Shaffer, E. J. (2006). Academic correlates of children and adolescents’ life satisfaction. School Psychology International, 27(5), 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Suldo, S. M., Shaffer, E. J., & Riley, K. N. (2008). A social-cognitive-behavioral model of academic predictors of adolescents’ life satisfaction. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), 56–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Synder, K. E., Nietfeld, J. L., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2011). Giftedness and metacognition: A short-term longitudinal investigation of metacognitive monitoring in the classroom. Gifted Child Quarterly, 55(3), 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Topçu, M. S., & Tüzün, O. Y. (2009). Elementary students’ metacognition and epistemological beliefs considering science achievement, gender and socioeconomic status. Elementary Education Online, 8(3), 676–693.Google Scholar
  62. Turki, J., & Al-Qaisy, L. M. (2012). Adjusted problems and self-efficacy among gifted students in salt pioneer center. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 4(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  63. Vecchio, G. M., Gerbino, M., Pastorelli, C., Bove, G. D., & Caprara, G. V. (2007). Multi-faceted self-efficacy beliefs as predictors of life satisfaction in late adolescence. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1807–1818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Veenman, M. V. J., Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M., & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition and Learning, 1(1), 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Vrugt, A., & Oort, F. J. (2008). Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: Pathways to achievement. Metacognition and Learning, 3(2), 123–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Whitebread, D., Coltman, P., Paternak, D. P., Sangster, C., Grau, V., Bingham, S., et al. (2009). The development of two observational tools for assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning ın young children. Metacognition and Learning, 4(1), 63–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yetim, Ü. (1991). Reliability and validity of satisfaction with life scale in Turkish form (In Turkish). Paper presented at the 6th National Psychology Conference, Istanbul, Turkey.Google Scholar
  68. Yetim, Ü. (2003). The impacts of individualism/collectivism, self-esteem and feeling of mastery on life satisfaction among the Turkish university students and academician. Social Indicators Research, 61, 297–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of EducationOrdu UniversityOrduTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Science Education, Fatih Faculty of EducationKaradeniz Technical UniversitySöğütlüTurkey

Personalised recommendations