Social Indicators Research

, Volume 122, Issue 1, pp 279–296 | Cite as

The Revised Multidimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE2)

  • Carla A. Houkamau
  • Chris G. SibleyEmail author


We update and validate the revised Multidimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE2) by including a seventh Perceived Appearance subscale. The MMM-ICE2 is designed to assess the subjective experiences, efficacy and evaluation of different facets of identity for Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of an online Māori community sample (N = 276) supported the revised seven-factor model assessing Group Membership Evaluation, Cultural Efficacy and Active Identity Engagement, Interdependent Self-Concept, Spirituality, Socio-Political Consciousness, Authenticity Beliefs, and the new Perceived Appearance subscale. The Perceived Appearance subscale was internally reliable and predicted unique variation in perceived discrimination and mixed ethnic affiliation as both Māori and European when adjusting for the other MMM-ICE2 subscale scores. The MMM-ICE2 is a public domain, quantitative self-report measure for use in statistical models to predict and understand the outcomes and protective function of different aspects of identity for Māori.


Māori Psychometric Identity Self-report questionnaire Scale development 



This research was supported by a Te Whare Kura New Knowledge Acquisition Grant awarded to Carla Houkamau and Chris Sibley (#03903/1550).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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