Social Indicators Research

, Volume 121, Issue 3, pp 727–743 | Cite as

Relationships Between Identity and Well-Being in Italian, Polish, and Romanian Emerging Adults

  • Dominika Karaś
  • Jan Cieciuch
  • Oana Negru
  • Elisabetta Crocetti
Article

Abstract

The main aim of our research was to describe the comprehensive picture of relationships between identity and well-being with a cross-national perspective. We examined identity considering the interplay of three processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and we treated well-being as a multidimensional latent variable, whose indicators were subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and social well-being. Participants were 1,086 (60.6 % female) emerging adults from Italy, Poland, and Romania. They completed self-report measures of identity and well-being. We adopted a structural equation modeling approach and we tested associations between identity and well-being for university students (taking into account educational identity) and working emerging adults (considering job identity). For all countries and in both identity domains findings indicated that well-being was consistently associated with high commitment, high in-depth exploration, and low reconsideration of commitment. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Keywords

Identity Commitment Exploration Reconsideration of commitment Well-being Emerging adulthood 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Dominika Karaś was supported by Grants (UMO-2012/07/N/HS6/02015) from the Polish National Science Centre. Jan Cieciuch was supported by Grants (DEC-2011/01/D/HS6/04077) from the Polish National Science Centre. Oana Negru was supported by Grant PD412/2010 from the Romanian National University Research Council (CNCSIS). Elisabetta Crocetti was supported by a Marie Curie fellowship (FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IEF).

References

  1. Adams, G. R., & Marshall, S. (1996). A developmental social psychology of identity: Understanding the person in context. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. Oxford: University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Arnett, J. J. (2007). Suffering, selfish, slackers? Myth and reality about emerging adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagozzi, R. P. (1994). Structural equation models in marketing research: Basic principles. In R. P. Bagozzi (Ed.), Principles of marketing research (pp. 317–385). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  6. Berman, S. L. (2011). International perspectives on identity development.Child and Youth Care Forum, 40(1), 1-5.Google Scholar
  7. Berzonsky, M. D. (2003). Identity style and well-being: Does commitment matter? Identity: An international Journal of Theory and Research, 3, 131–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 464–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crocetti, E., Jahromi, P., & Meeus, W. (2012a). Identity and civic engagement in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 521–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crocetti, E., Klimstra, T., Keijsers, L., Hale, W. W, I. I. I., & Meeus, W. (2009a). Anxiety trajectory classes and identity development in adolescence: A five-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 839–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crocetti, E., & Meeus, W. (2014). Identity statuses: Advantages of a person-centered approach. In K. C. McLean & M. Syed (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of identity development. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Crocetti, E., Rabaglietti, E., & Sica, L. L. (2012b). Personal identity in Italy. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 138, 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Berzonsky, M. D., & Meeus, W. (2009b). The identity style inventory: Validation in Italian adolescents and college students. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 425–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Luyckx, K., & Meeus, W. (2008a). Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: From three dimensions to five statuses. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 983–996.Google Scholar
  15. Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., & Meeus, W. (2008b). Capturing the dynamics of identity formation in various ethnic groups: Development and validation of three-dimensional model. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 207–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crocetti, E., Schwartz, S. J., Fermani, A., Klimstra, T., & Meeus, W. (2012c). A cross-national study of identity status in Dutch and Italian adolescents: Status distributions and correlates. European Psychologist, 17, 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crocetti, E., Schwartz, S. J., Fermani, A., & Meeus, W. (2010). The Utrecht-management of identity commitments Scale (U-MICS): Italian validation and cross-national comparisons. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 26, 172–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crocetti, E., Scrignaro, M., Sica, L. S., & Magrin, M. E. (2012d). Correlates of identity configurations: Three studies with adolescent and emerging adult cohorts. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 732–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crocetti, E., Sica, L. S., Schwartz, S. J., Serafini, T., & Meeus, W. (2013). Identity styles, processes, statuses, and functions: Making connections among identity dimensions. European Review of Applied Psychology, 63, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davidov, E., Cieciuch, J., Meuleman, B., Schmidt, P., & Billiet, J. (2014). Measurement equivalence in cross-national research. Annual Review of Sociology, 40. (in press).Google Scholar
  21. Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Diener, E., & Lucas, R. (1999). Personality and subjective well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 213–229). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  24. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 403–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency—P9 Eurydice. (2012). Key Data on Education in Europe 2012, available online at http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/key_data_series/134EN.pdf.
  26. Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  27. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  28. European Commission, Economic Policy Committee (Quality of Public Finances) and the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs. (2010). Efficiency and effectiveness of public expenditure on tertiary education in the EU. In European Economy. Occasional Papers 2010 series, available online at http://europa.eu/epc/pdf/country_fiches_-_ecofin_final_en.pdf.
  29. EUROSTAT. (2012). Education and training 2012 Databases, available online at http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/education/data/database.
  30. Gallagher, M. W., Lopez, S. J., & Preacher, K. J. (2009). The hierarchical structure of well-being. Journal of Personality, 77, 1025–1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goossens, L. (2001). Global versus domain-specific statuses in identity research: A comparison of two self-report measures. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 681–699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviours, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  33. Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  34. Jahoda, M. (1958). Current concepts of positive mental health. New York: Basic Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Keyes, C. L. M. (2005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 539–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Keyes, C. L. M. (2006). Subjective well-being in mental health and human development research worldwide: An introduction. Social Indicators Research, 77, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keyes, C. L. M., & Waterman, M. B. (2003). Dimensions of well-being and mental health in adulthood. In M. H. Bornstein, L. Davidson, C. L. M. Keyes, & K. A. Moore (Eds.), Well-being. Positive development across the life course (pp. 477–497). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  39. Kroger, J., & Marcia, J. E. (2011). The identity statuses: Origins, meanings, and interpretations. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (pp. 31–53). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Livi Bacci, M. (2008). Avanti giovani, alla riscossa [Go ahead young people, to the rescue!]. Bologna, Italy: il Mulino.Google Scholar
  41. Luyckx, K., Goossens, L., & Soenens, B. (2006a). A developmental contextual perspective on identity construction in emerging adulthood: Change dynamics in commitment formation and commitment evaluation. Developmental Psychology, 42, 366–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Luyckx, K., Goossens, L., Soenens, B., & Beyers, W. (2006b). Unpacking commitment and exploration: Preliminary validation of an integrative model of late adolescent identity formation. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 361–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Luyckx, K., Goossens, L., Soenens, B., Beyers, W., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2005). Identity statuses based on four rather than two identity dimensions: Extending and refining Marcia’s paradigm. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 605–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Luyckx, K., Schwartz, S., Berzonsky, M., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Smits, I., et al. (2008). Capturing ruminative exploration: Extending the four dimensional model of identity formation in late adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 58–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Luyckx, K., Seiffge-Krenke, I., Schwartz, S. J., Crocetti, E., & Klimstra, T. A. (2014). Identity configurations across love and work in emerging adults in romantic relationships. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 35, 192–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego-identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 551–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Andelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  48. Meeus, W. (2011). The study of adolescent identity formation 2000–2010: A review of longitudinal research. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 75–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meeus, W., Iedema, J., Helsen, M., & Vollebergh, W. (1999). Patterns of adolescent identity development: Review of literature and longitudinal analysis. Developmental Review, 19, 419–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meeus, W., Van de Schoot, R., Keijsers, L., Schwartz, S., & Branje, S. (2010). On the progression and stability of adolescent identity formation: A five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescence. Child Development, 81, 1565–1581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Muller, W., & Kogan, I. (2010). Education. In S. Immerfall & G. Therborn (Eds.), Handbook of European societies: Social transformations in the 21st century (pp. 217–290). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological well-being in adult life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 13–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Saris, W. E., Satorra, A., & van der Veld, W. (2009). Testing structural equation models or detection of misspecifications? Structural Equation Modeling, 16, 561–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schwartz, S. J., Côté, J. E., & Arnett, J. J. (2005). Identity and agency in emerging adulthood. Two developmental routes in the individualization process. Youth & Society, 37, 201–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Luyckx, K., Meca, A., & Ritchie, R. A. (2013). Identity in emerging adulthood: Reviewing the field and looking forward. Emerging Adulthood, 1, 96–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Meca, A., & Ritchie, R. A. (2012). Identity around the world: An overview. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 138, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press/Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  62. Serafini, T. E., & Adams, G. R. (2002). Functions of identity: Scale construction and validation. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 2, 361–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2002). Handbook of positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Waterman, A. S., Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Ravert, R. D., Williams, M. K., Agoha, V. B., et al. (2010). The Questionnaire for Eudaimonic well-being: Psychometric properties, demographic comparisons, and evidence of validity. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 41–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zimmerman, G., Mahaim, E. B., Mantzouranis, G., Genoud, P. A., & Crocetti, E. (2012). Brief report: The identity style inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS)—Factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity in French-speaking university students. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 461–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dominika Karaś
    • 1
  • Jan Cieciuch
    • 2
    • 5
  • Oana Negru
    • 3
  • Elisabetta Crocetti
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of PsychologyCardinal Stefan Wyszyński UniversityWarsawPoland
  2. 2.University of Finance and ManagementWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Babeş-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania
  4. 4.Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  5. 5.University of Zurich ZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations