Relationships Between Identity and Well-Being in Italian, Polish, and Romanian Emerging Adults
- 556 Downloads
The main aim of our research was to describe the comprehensive picture of relationships between identity and well-being with a cross-national perspective. We examined identity considering the interplay of three processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and we treated well-being as a multidimensional latent variable, whose indicators were subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and social well-being. Participants were 1,086 (60.6 % female) emerging adults from Italy, Poland, and Romania. They completed self-report measures of identity and well-being. We adopted a structural equation modeling approach and we tested associations between identity and well-being for university students (taking into account educational identity) and working emerging adults (considering job identity). For all countries and in both identity domains findings indicated that well-being was consistently associated with high commitment, high in-depth exploration, and low reconsideration of commitment. Implications of these findings are discussed.
KeywordsIdentity Commitment Exploration Reconsideration of commitment Well-being Emerging adulthood
Dominika Karaś was supported by Grants (UMO-2012/07/N/HS6/02015) from the Polish National Science Centre. Jan Cieciuch was supported by Grants (DEC-2011/01/D/HS6/04077) from the Polish National Science Centre. Oana Negru was supported by Grant PD412/2010 from the Romanian National University Research Council (CNCSIS). Elisabetta Crocetti was supported by a Marie Curie fellowship (FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IEF).
- Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. Oxford: University Press.Google Scholar
- Bagozzi, R. P. (1994). Structural equation models in marketing research: Basic principles. In R. P. Bagozzi (Ed.), Principles of marketing research (pp. 317–385). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Berman, S. L. (2011). International perspectives on identity development.Child and Youth Care Forum, 40(1), 1-5.Google Scholar
- Crocetti, E., & Meeus, W. (2014). Identity statuses: Advantages of a person-centered approach. In K. C. McLean & M. Syed (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of identity development. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., Luyckx, K., & Meeus, W. (2008a). Identity formation in early and middle adolescents from various ethnic groups: From three dimensions to five statuses. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 983–996.Google Scholar
- Davidov, E., Cieciuch, J., Meuleman, B., Schmidt, P., & Billiet, J. (2014). Measurement equivalence in cross-national research. Annual Review of Sociology, 40. (in press).Google Scholar
- Diener, E., & Lucas, R. (1999). Personality and subjective well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 213–229). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency—P9 Eurydice. (2012). Key Data on Education in Europe 2012, available online at http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/key_data_series/134EN.pdf.
- Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- European Commission, Economic Policy Committee (Quality of Public Finances) and the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs. (2010). Efficiency and effectiveness of public expenditure on tertiary education in the EU. In European Economy. Occasional Papers 2010 series, available online at http://europa.eu/epc/pdf/country_fiches_-_ecofin_final_en.pdf.
- EUROSTAT. (2012). Education and training 2012 Databases, available online at http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/education/data/database.
- Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviours, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Keyes, C. L. M., & Waterman, M. B. (2003). Dimensions of well-being and mental health in adulthood. In M. H. Bornstein, L. Davidson, C. L. M. Keyes, & K. A. Moore (Eds.), Well-being. Positive development across the life course (pp. 477–497). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Livi Bacci, M. (2008). Avanti giovani, alla riscossa [Go ahead young people, to the rescue!]. Bologna, Italy: il Mulino.Google Scholar
- Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Andelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press/Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
- Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2002). Handbook of positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Waterman, A. S., Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Ravert, R. D., Williams, M. K., Agoha, V. B., et al. (2010). The Questionnaire for Eudaimonic well-being: Psychometric properties, demographic comparisons, and evidence of validity. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 41–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zimmerman, G., Mahaim, E. B., Mantzouranis, G., Genoud, P. A., & Crocetti, E. (2012). Brief report: The identity style inventory (ISI-3) and the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS)—Factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity in French-speaking university students. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 461–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar