Social Indicators Research

, Volume 121, Issue 3, pp 727–743 | Cite as

Relationships Between Identity and Well-Being in Italian, Polish, and Romanian Emerging Adults

  • Dominika KaraśEmail author
  • Jan Cieciuch
  • Oana Negru
  • Elisabetta Crocetti


The main aim of our research was to describe the comprehensive picture of relationships between identity and well-being with a cross-national perspective. We examined identity considering the interplay of three processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and we treated well-being as a multidimensional latent variable, whose indicators were subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and social well-being. Participants were 1,086 (60.6 % female) emerging adults from Italy, Poland, and Romania. They completed self-report measures of identity and well-being. We adopted a structural equation modeling approach and we tested associations between identity and well-being for university students (taking into account educational identity) and working emerging adults (considering job identity). For all countries and in both identity domains findings indicated that well-being was consistently associated with high commitment, high in-depth exploration, and low reconsideration of commitment. Implications of these findings are discussed.


Identity Commitment Exploration Reconsideration of commitment Well-being Emerging adulthood 



Dominika Karaś was supported by Grants (UMO-2012/07/N/HS6/02015) from the Polish National Science Centre. Jan Cieciuch was supported by Grants (DEC-2011/01/D/HS6/04077) from the Polish National Science Centre. Oana Negru was supported by Grant PD412/2010 from the Romanian National University Research Council (CNCSIS). Elisabetta Crocetti was supported by a Marie Curie fellowship (FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IEF).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dominika Karaś
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jan Cieciuch
    • 2
    • 5
  • Oana Negru
    • 3
  • Elisabetta Crocetti
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of PsychologyCardinal Stefan Wyszyński UniversityWarsawPoland
  2. 2.University of Finance and ManagementWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Babeş-Bolyai UniversityCluj-NapocaRomania
  4. 4.Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  5. 5.University of Zurich ZurichSwitzerland

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