Attachment Relationships and Life Satisfaction During Emerging Adulthood
- 2.2k Downloads
The present study examined peer attachment (friend attachment and romantic attachment) as potential mediator in the relationship between parental attachment (attachment to mother and father) and life satisfaction in emerging adulthood. The sample comprised 385 Italian emerging-adults aged from 18 to 25 years. The technique of structural equation modeling was applied to investigate the hypothesized model. Results indicated that both parental and peer attachment were positively related to life satisfaction, with romantic attachment being the stronger unique predictor. Further, only romantic attachment wholly mediates the association between attachment to mother and life satisfaction. Findings are reviewed in relation to past research and implications for professional practice are discussed.
KeywordsParental attachment Friend attachment Romantic attachment Life satisfaction Emerging adulthood
We thank all participants in this study for their time. We would also like to thank Sarah L. Barker for her review of the English translation.
- Allen, L. P., & Land, D. (1999). Attachment in adolescence. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 319–335). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software Inc.Google Scholar
- Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. Vol. 2: Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Bretherton, I., & Munholland, K. A. (1999). Internal working models in attachment relationships: A construct revisited. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 89–111). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Browne, M. W., & Cudek, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Carrà, E., & Marta, E. (1995). Relazioni familiari e adolescenza [Family relationships and adolescence]. Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
- Collins, W. A., Gleason, T., & Sesma, A. (1997). Internalization, autonomy, and relationships: Development during adolescence. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children’s internalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory (pp. 78–99). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Collins, W. A., & Laursen, B. (2000). Adolescent relationships: The art of fugue. In C. Hendrick & S. Hendrick (Eds.), Close relationships: A sourcebook (pp. 59–70). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Collins, W. A., & Laursen, B. (2004). Parent–adolescent relationships and influences. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 1–61). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Collins, W. A., & van Dulmen, M. (2006). Friendships and romance in emerging adulthood: Assessing distinctiveness in close relationships. In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 219–234). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Crowell, J., & Waters, E. (1994). Bowlby’s theory grown up: The role of attachment in adult love relations. Psychological Inquiry: An International Journal of Peer Commentary and Review, 5, 31–34. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1449078.
- Di Fabio, A., & Busoni, L. (2009). Proprità psicometriche della versione italiana della Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) con studenti universitari [Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) with university students]. Counseling. Giornale Italiano di Ricerca e Applicazioni, 2, 201–211.Google Scholar
- Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1992). Age and sex differences in perceptions of networks of personal relationships. Child Development, 63, 103–115. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1130905.
- Guarnieri, S., Ponti, L., & Tani, F. (2010). The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA): A study on the validity of styles of adolescent attachment to parents and peers in an Italian sample. TPM—Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 17(3), 103–130.Google Scholar
- Guarnieri, S., & Tani, F. (2011). Reti sociali e soddisfazione di vita durante l’emerging adulthood [Social networks and life satisfaction in emerging adulthood]. Giornale di Psicologia dello Sviluppo. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 99, 34–52.Google Scholar
- La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Within person variation in security of attachment: A self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(3), 367–384. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Laursen, B., & Williams, V. (1997). Perceptions of interdependence and closeness in family and peer relationships among adolescents with and without romantic partners. In S. Shulman & W. A. Collins (Eds.), Romantic relationships in adolescence. New directions for child development (Vol. 78, pp. 3–20). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Ling, X., Jiang, G. R., & Xia, Q. (2008). Relationship between normal university freshmen’s adult attachment towards different subjects and subjective wellbeing. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16, 71–73.Google Scholar
- Malagoli-Togliatti, M., & Ardone, R. (1993). Adolescenti e genitori [Adolescents and parents]. Roma: La Nuova Italia Scientifica.Google Scholar
- Manganelli, A. M., & Capozza, D. (1993). Famiglia, ruoli sessuali, aspettative giovanili [Family, sex roles and juvenile expectations]. In M. Cusinato (Ed.), Ruoli e vissuti familiari (pp. 84–103). Firenze: Giunti.Google Scholar
- Owens, G., Crowell, J. A., Pan, H., & Treboux, D. (1995). The prototype hypothesis and the origins of attachment working models: Adult relationships with parents and romantic partners. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 60, 216–233. doi: 10.2307/1166180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Picardi, A., Bitetti, D., Puddu, P., & Pasquini, P. (2000). La scala “Experiences in Close Relationships” (ECL), un nuovo strumento per la valutazione dell’attaccamento negli adulti: Traduzione, adattamento e validazione della versione italiana [Devolpment and validation of an Italian version of the questionnaire “Experiences in Close Relationships”, a new self-report measure of adult attachment]. Rivista di Psichiatria, 35(3), 114–120.Google Scholar
- Picardi, A., Vermigli, P., Toni, A., D’amico, R., Bitetti, D., & Pasquini, P. (2002). Il questionario “Experiences in Close Relationships” (ECR) per la valutazione dell’attaccamento negli adulti: Ampliamento delle evidenze di validità per la versione italiana [Further evidence of the validity of the Italian version of the questionnaire “Experiences in Close Relationships” (ECR), a self- report instrument to assess adult attachment]. Giornale Italiano di Psicopatologia, 8(3), 282–294.Google Scholar
- Piumatti, G., Pipitone, L., Di Vita, A. M., Latina, D., & Rabaglietti, E. (2013). Transition to adulthood across Italy: A comparison between northern and southern Italian young adults. Journal of Adult Development, 20(2). doi: 10.1007/s10804-013-9174-6.
- Rosnati, R. (1996). Gender differences and adolescent life plans: A family point of view. In M. Cusinato (Ed.), Research on family resources and needs across the world (pp. 375–394). Padova: LED.Google Scholar
- Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C. C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399–419). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Scabini, E. (2000). Parent–child relationships in Italian families: Connectedness and autonomy in the transition to adulthood. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 16, 23–30.Google Scholar
- Thompson, R. A. (1999). Early attachment and later development. In J. Cassidy & P. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment (pp. 265–286). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Van Buren, A., & Cooley, E. L. (2002). Attachment styles, view of self and negative affect. North American Journal of Psychology, 4, 417–430.Google Scholar