Social Indicators Research

, Volume 121, Issue 1, pp 291–312 | Cite as

The Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC–SF) as a Measure of Well-Being in the Italian Context

  • Giovanna Petrillo
  • Vincenza Capone
  • Daniela Caso
  • Corey L. M. Keyes


We examined the structure, reliability, construct validity, and gender invariance of the Italian version of the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (Italian MHC–SF), a self-report questionnaire for positive mental health assessment developed by Keyes. The scale was administered to 1,438 Italian respondents, mainly from central and southern Italy, between the ages of 18 and 89 years (m = 47.12; SD = 19.56). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three-factors solution (emotional, psychological, and social) and a latent factor consisting of the three dimensions of well-being, and that the structure of the scale was the same for males and females. Results revealed a high internal reliability and moderate test–retest reliability. The subscales correlated positively with corresponding aspects of well-being and functioning, showing convergent validity. The scale correlated negatively and moderately with measures of mental illness, showing divergent validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported the hypothesis of two separate, but correlated, factors for mental health and mental illness, showing discriminant validity and support for the two-continua model. A categorical diagnosis of the presence of mental health and the absence of mental health was applied to the sample. The Italian MHC–SF is a reliable and valid instrument to measure well-being and the positive aspects of mental health.


MHC–SF Italian adaption Positive mental health Well-being Mental illness Flourishing people 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanna Petrillo
    • 1
  • Vincenza Capone
    • 1
  • Daniela Caso
    • 1
  • Corey L. M. Keyes
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of HumanitiesUniversity of Naples “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  2. 2.Department of SociologyEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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