Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 120, Issue 2, pp 515–524 | Cite as

Core Self-Evaluations, Perceived Stress and Life Satisfaction in Spanish Young and Middle-Aged Adults: An Examination of Mediation and Moderation Effects

  • Lourdes Rey
  • Natalio ExtremeraEmail author
Article

Abstract

Whereas a vast amount of research has demonstrated the association between core self-evaluations (CSE) and well-being indicators, few studies have specifically focused on the ways in which CSE might facilitate an increased well-being. This study assesses whether perceived stress might either be a potential mediator and/or moderator in the relationship between CSE and life satisfaction in two independent samples: middle-aged adults (N = 320) and young adults (N = 473). In both samples, participants completed a battery of questionnaires composed of a CSE scale, perceived stress scale and life satisfaction scale. Bootstrap analyses showed that perceived stress partially mediated the relationship between CSE and life satisfaction in both samples. However, moderation analyses failed to support that perceived stress moderated the influence of CSE on life satisfaction either in middle-aged adults or young adults samples. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

Keywords

Core self-evaluations Perceived stress Life satisfaction Young and middle-aged adults Mediation and moderation effects 

References

  1. Aiken, L., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Atienza, F., Balaguer, I., & Garcia-Merita, M. (2003). Satisfaction with life scale: Analysis of factorial invariance across sexes. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1255–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.Google Scholar
  4. Best, R. G., Stapleton, L. M., & Downey, R. G. (2005). Core self-evaluations and job burnout: The test of alternative models. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 441–451.Google Scholar
  5. Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Core self-evaluations: A review of the trait and its role in job satisfaction and job performance. European Journal of Personality, 17, S5–S18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang, C. H., Ferris, D. L., Johnson, R. E., Rosen, C. C., & Tan, J. A. (2012). Core self-evaluations: A review and evaluation of the literature. Journal of Management, 38, 81–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang, E. C., Sanna, L., Riley, A. M., Thornburg, A. M., Zumberg, K. M., & Edwards, M. C. (2007). Relations between problem-solving styles and psychological adjustment in young adults: Is stress a mediating variable?. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., & Miller, G. E. (2007). Psychological stress and disease. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, 1685–1687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 71–75.Google Scholar
  11. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 403–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gable, S., & Haidt, J. (2005). What (and Why) is Positive Psychology? Review of General Psychology, 9, 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hamarat, E., Thompson, D., Zabrucky, K. M., Steele, D., Matheny, K. B., & Aysan, F. (2001). Perceived stress and coping resource availability as predictors of life satisfaction in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Experimental Aging Research, 27, 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heller, D., Judge, T. A., & Watson, D. (2002). The confounding role of personality and trait affectivity in the relationship between job and life satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 815–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Helson, R., & Soto, C. J. (2005). Up and down in middle age: Monotonic and nonmonotonic changes in roles, status, and personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 194–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hirsch, J. K., & Ellis, J. B. (1996). Differences in life stress and reasons for living among college suicide ideators and non-ideators. College Student Journal, 30, 377–384.Google Scholar
  17. Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2003). The core self-evaluations scale (CSES): development of a measure. Personnel Psychology, 56, 303–331.Google Scholar
  18. Judge, T. A., & Hurst, C. (2007). The benefits and possible costs of positive core self-evaluations: A review and agenda for future research. D. Nelson & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Positive organizational behavior (pp. 159–174). London, UK: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  19. Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., & Durham, C. C. (1997). The dispositional causes of job satisfaction: A core evaluations approach. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19, 151–188.Google Scholar
  20. Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., Durham, C. C., & Kluger, A. N. (1998). Dispositional effects on job and life satisfaction: The role of core evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Judge, T. A., Van Vianen, A. E. M., & De Pater, I. E. (2004). Emotional stability, core self-valuations, and job outcomes: A review of the evidence and an agenda for future research. Human Performance, 17, 325–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., Judge, T. A., & Scott, B. A. (2009). The role of core self-evaluations in the coping process: Testing an integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 177–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lachman, M. E. (2001). Handbook of midlife development. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  24. Lazarus, R. (1999). Stress and emotion: A new synthesis. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  25. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Lucas, R. E., & Diener, E. (2008). Subjective emotional well-being. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 471–484). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  27. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, F. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Misra, R., & Castillo, L. G. (2004). Academic stress among college students: Comparison of American and International Students. International Journal of Stress Management, 11, 132–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ong, A. D., Bergeman, C. S., Bisconti, T. L., & Wallace, K. A. (2006). Psychological resilience, positive emotions, and successful adaptation to stress in later life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 730–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students, a third decade of research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  31. Piccolo, R. F., Judge, T. A., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, N., & Locke, E. A. (2005). Core self-evaluations in Japan: Relative effects on job satisfaction, life satisfaction and happiness. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 965–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36, 717–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Remor, E. A., & Carrobles, J. A. (2001). Versión española de la Escala de Estrés Percibido (PSS-14): Estudio psicométrico en una muestra VIH. Ansiedad y Estrés, 7, 195–201.Google Scholar
  34. Rey, L., Extremera, N., & Durán, M. A. (2012). Core-self evaluations, meta-experience and happiness: Test of direct and moderating effects. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.Google Scholar
  36. Ross, S. E., Niebling, B. C., & Heckert, T. M. (1999). Sources of stress among college students. College Student Journal, 33, 312–318.Google Scholar
  37. Schiffrin, H. H., & Nelson, S. K. (2010). Stressed and happy? Investigation of the relationship between happiness and perceived stress. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Song, G., Kong, F., & Jin, W. (2013). Mediating effects of Core Self-Evaluations on the relationship between social support and life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PsychologyUniversity of MalagaMálagaSpain

Personalised recommendations