Social Indicators Research

, Volume 119, Issue 3, pp 1649–1661 | Cite as

Measuring Hope in the Philippines: Validating the Short Version of the Locus-of-Hope Scale in Filipino

  • Allan B. I. BernardoEmail author
  • Alicia F. Estrellado


A short version of the locus-of-hope Scale was developed and translated into the Filipino language for the purpose of assessing hope in Filipinos who have lower levels of education and who may not have adequate levels of proficiency in English. The 20-item scale had four locus-of-hope subscales (internal, external-family, external-peers, and external-spiritual) each with four items (another four were filler items); all items described thoughts associated with some capacity and strategy to attain important goals in life. A sample (N = 362) of adults from communities in Metro Manila were asked to answer the scale, as well as measures of optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an adequate fit between the hypothesized four-factor structure and the data, but the internal locus-of-hope scale was found to have low internal consistency. Regression analysis showed positive associations between the internal and external-family locus-of-hope subscales and the three measures of wellbeing. But external-peers locus-of-hope was negatively associated with optimism and self-esteem, and external-spiritual locus-of-hope was positively related with optimism.


Hope Locus-of-hope Optimism Self-esteem Life-satisfaction Wellbeing Filipinos 



This research was supported by a grant from the Research Development and Administration Office of the University of Macau (Project Reference No.: SRG014-FSH13-ABIB).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MacauTaipaSAR, China
  2. 2.Counseling and Educational Psychology DepartmentDe La Salle UniversityManilaPhilippines

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