Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 119, Issue 3, pp 1649–1661 | Cite as

Measuring Hope in the Philippines: Validating the Short Version of the Locus-of-Hope Scale in Filipino

  • Allan B. I. BernardoEmail author
  • Alicia F. Estrellado
Article

Abstract

A short version of the locus-of-hope Scale was developed and translated into the Filipino language for the purpose of assessing hope in Filipinos who have lower levels of education and who may not have adequate levels of proficiency in English. The 20-item scale had four locus-of-hope subscales (internal, external-family, external-peers, and external-spiritual) each with four items (another four were filler items); all items described thoughts associated with some capacity and strategy to attain important goals in life. A sample (N = 362) of adults from communities in Metro Manila were asked to answer the scale, as well as measures of optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an adequate fit between the hypothesized four-factor structure and the data, but the internal locus-of-hope scale was found to have low internal consistency. Regression analysis showed positive associations between the internal and external-family locus-of-hope subscales and the three measures of wellbeing. But external-peers locus-of-hope was negatively associated with optimism and self-esteem, and external-spiritual locus-of-hope was positively related with optimism.

Keywords

Hope Locus-of-hope Optimism Self-esteem Life-satisfaction Wellbeing Filipinos 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by a grant from the Research Development and Administration Office of the University of Macau (Project Reference No.: SRG014-FSH13-ABIB).

References

  1. Ashby, J. S., Dickinson, W. L., Gnilka, P. B., & Noble, C. L. (2011). Hope as a mediator and moderator of multidimensional perfectionism and depression in middle school students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 89, 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey, T. C., Eng, W., Frisch, M. B., & Snyder, C. R. (2007). Hope and optimism as related to life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2, 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernardo, A. B. I. (2004). McKinley’s questionable bequest: Over 100 years of English in Philippine education. World Englishes, 23, 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernardo, A. B. I. (2010). Extending hope theory: Internal and external locus of trait hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 944–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bernardo, A. B. I. (2013). Hope grounded in belief: Direct and indirect influence of social axioms on dispositional hope. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54, 522–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernardo, A. B. I., Lising, R. H., & Shulruf, B. (2013). Validity of two language versions of the Auckland individualism and collectivism scale with filipino-english bilinguals. Psychological Studies, 58, 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bond, M. H. (Ed.). (2009). The psychology of the Chinese people. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bond, M. H. (2013). The pan-culturality of well-being: But how does culture fit into the equation? Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 158–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bond, M. H., & Cheung, T. (1983). College students’ spontaneous self-concept: The effect of culture among respondents in Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 14, 153–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bratman, M. E. (1999). Faces of intention: Selected essays on intention and agency. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bryant, F. B., & Cvengros, J. A. (2004). Distinguishing hope and optimism: Two sides of a coin, or two separate coins? Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 273–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1999). Optimism. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Coping: The psychology of what works (pp. 182–204). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Cedeno, L. A., Elias, M. J., Kelly, S., & Chu, B. C. (2010). School violence, adjustment, and the influence of hope on low-income, African American youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80, 213–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chang, E. C., & DeSimone, S. L. (2001). The influence of hope on appraisals, coping and dysphoria: A test of hope theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 117–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cotton Bronk, K., Hill, P. L., Lapsley, D. K., Talib, T. L., & Finch, H. (2009). Purpose, hope, and life satisfaction in three age groups. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 500–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Curry, L. A., Snyder, C. R., Cook, D. L., Ruby, B. C., & Rehm, M. (1997). Role of hope in academic and sport achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1257–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Davidson, C. L., Wingate, L. R., & Slish, M. L. (2009). Hope as a predictor of interpersonal suicide risk. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 39, 499–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Du, H., & King, R. B. (2013). Placing hope in self and others: Exploring the relationship among self-construal’s, locus-of-hope, and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 332–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Du, H., King, R. B., & Chi, P. (2012). The development and validation of the relational self-esteem scale. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53, 258–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. EdVisions Schools (2013). The hope survey. Retrieved from: http://www.hopesurvey.org/about-the-hope-survey. Henderson, MN: EdVisions Schools.
  24. Gallup and Operation Hope (2013). The 2012 Gallup-hope index. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/strategicconsulting/159902/2012-gallup-hope-index.aspx. New York: Gallup.
  25. Geiger, K. A., & Kwon, P. (2010). Rumination and depressive symptoms: Evidence for the moderating role of hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 391–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hashimoto, H., & Yamagishi, T. (2013). Two faces of interdependence: Harmony seeking and rejection avoidance. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 16, 142–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hewitt, J. P. (1998). The myth of self-esteem: Finding happiness and solving problems in America. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hobfoll, S. E., Watson, P., Bell, C. C., Bryant, R. A., Brymer, M. J., Friedman, M. J., et al. (2007). Five essential elements of immediate and mid-term mass trauma intervention: Empirical evidence. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 70, 283–315.Google Scholar
  29. Juntunen, C. L., & Wettersten, K. B. (2006). Work hope: Development and initial validation of a measure. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 94–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kintanar, N. S., & Bernardo, A. B. I. (2013). Hope and internal working models of the self and others: A correlational study on Filipino adolescents. Psychological Studies, 58, 48–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li, H. Z. (2002). Culture, gender and self-close-other(s) connectedness in Canadian and Chinese samples. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lowles, N., & Painter, A. (2013). Fear and hope: The new politics of identity. Retrieved from http://www.fearandhope.org.uk/project-report/. London: Searchlight Educational Trust.
  33. Magaletta, P. R., & Oliver, J. M. (1999). The hope construct, will, and ways: Their relations with self-efficacy, optimism, and general well-being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 539–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2003). Models of agency: Sociocultural diversity in the construction of action. In V. Murphy-Berman & J. J. Berman (Eds.), Cross-cultural differences in perspectives on the self (pp. 1–57). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  35. Miller, J. G. (2003). Culture and agency: Implications for psychological theories of motivation and social development. In V. Murphy-Berman & J. J. Berman (Eds.), Cross-cultural differences in perspectives on the self (pp. 59–99). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  36. Newell, R. J., & Van Ryzin, M. (2009). Assessing what really matters in schools: Creating hope for the future. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  37. O’Sullivan, G. (2011). The relationship between hope, eustress, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction among undergraduates. Social Indicators Research, 101, 155–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oyserman, D., Coon, H., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rand, K. L. (2009). Hope and optimism: Latent structures and influences on grade expectancy and academic performance. Journal of Personality, 77, 231–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Roesch, S. C., Duangado, K. M., Vaughn, A. A., Aldridge, A. A., & Villodas, F. (2010). Dispositional hope and the propensity to cope: A daily diary assessment of minority adolescents. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16, 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shorey, H. S., Roberts, C. R. D., & Huprich, S. K. (2012). The roles of domain specific hope and depressive personality in predicting depressive symptoms. Personality and Mental Health, 6, 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shulruf, B., Hattie, J., & Dixon, R. (2007). Development of a new measurement tool for individualism and collectivism. Journal of Psycho educational Assessment, 25, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Snyder, C. R. (1994). The psychology of hope. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  47. Snyder, C. R. (2000). Hypothesis: There is hope. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications (pp. 3–21). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., et al. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Snyder, C. R., Hoza, N., Pelham, W. E., & Rapoff, M. (1997). The development and validation of the Children’s Hope Scale. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 399–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Snyder, C. R., Lopez, S. J., & Pedrotti, J. T. (2010). Positive psychology: The scientific and practical explorations of human strengths (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  51. Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., Borders, T. F., Babyak, M. A., & Higgins, R. L. (1996). Development and validation of the State hope scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 331–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Suh, E., Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Triandis, H. C. (1998). The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 482–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Visser, P. L., Loess, P., Jeglic, E. L., & Hirsch, J. K. (2013). Hope as a moderator of negative life events and depressive symptoms in a diverse sample. Stress and Health, 29, 82–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Waynor, W. R., Gao, N., Dolce, J. N., Haytas, L. A., & Reilly, A. (2012). The relationship between hope and symptoms. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 35, 345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. WIN-Gallup International Association (2012). Global barometer of hope and happiness at year end 2012. Retrieved from http://www.wingia.com/en/news/end_of_year_survey_global_barometer_of_hope_and_happiness_2013/38.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MacauTaipaSAR, China
  2. 2.Counseling and Educational Psychology DepartmentDe La Salle UniversityManilaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations